GENTECH archive 8.96-97


NutraPoison (fwd)

Dear Andy:  Here is the article you wanted.


                              NutraSweet  [TM]
                              The NutraPoison

by Alex Constantine

(Reprinted by with Permission from  Prevailing Winds)

   I recognized my two selves: a crusading idealist and a cold, granitic 
believer in the law of the jungle. 
   -Edgar Monsanto Queeny, Monsanto chairman, 1943-63, 
    *The Spirit of Enterprise*, 1934. 

      The FDA is ever mindful to refer to aspartame, widely known as 
NutraSweet, as a "food additive"-never a "drug." A "drug" on the label of a 
Diet Coke might discourage the consumer. And because aspartame is classified a 
food additive, adverse reactions are not reported to a federal agency, nor is 
continued safety monitoring required by law.1  NutraSweet is a non-nutritive 
sweetener. The brand name is misnomer. Try Non-NutraSweet.  
      Food additives seldom cause brain lesions, headaches, mood alterations, 
skin polyps, blindness, brain tumors, insomnia and depression, or erode 
intelligence and short-term memory. Aspartame, according to some of the most 
capable scientists in the country, does. In 1991 the National Institutes of 
Health, a branch of the Department of Health and Human Services, published a 
bibliography, *Adverse Effects of Aspartame*, listing not less than 167 
reasons to avoid it.2   

     Aspartame is an rDNA derivative, a combination of two amino acids 
(long supplied by a pair of Maryland biotechnology firms: Genex Corp. of 
Rockville and Purification Engineering in Baltimore.)3 The Pentagon once 
listed it in an inventory of prospective biochemical warfare weapons submitted 
to Congress.4  But instead of poisoning enemy populations, the "food additive" 
is currently marketed as a sweetening agent in some 1200 food products.  

     In light of the chemo-warfare implications, the pasts of G.D. Searle and 
aspartame are ominous.  Established in 1888 on the north side of Chicago, G.D. 
Searle has long been a fixture of the medical establishment. The company 
manufactures everything from prescription drugs to nuclear imaging optical

     Directors of G.D. Searle include such geopolitical heavy-hitters as Andre 
M. de Staercke, Reagan's ambassador to Belgium and Reuben Richards, an 
executive vice president at Citibank. Also Arthur Wood, the retired CEO of 
Sears, Roebuck & C disgorged by the clan of General Robert E. Wood, wartime
chairman of the America First Committee.6 America Firsters, organized by 
native Nazis cloaked as isolationists, were quietly financed by the likes of 
Sullivan & Cromwell's Allen Dulles and Edwin Webster of Kidder, Peabody.7  

     Until the acquisition by Monsanto in 1985, the firm's chairman was 
William L. Searle, a Harvard graduate, Naval reservist and-a grim irony in 
view of aspartame's adverse effects-an officer in the Army Chemical Corps in 
the early 1950s, when the same division tested LSD on groups of human subjects 
in concert with the CIA.8  The chief of the Chemical Warfare Division at this 
time was Dr. Laurence Laird Layton, whose son Larry was convicted for the 
murder of Congressman Leo Ryan at Jonestown ("Come to the pavilion! What a 
legacy! "). Jonestown, of course, bore a remarkable likeness to a 
concentration camp, and kept a full store of pharmaceutical drugs. (The 
Jonestown pharmacy was stocked with a variety of behavior control drugs: 
qualudes, valium, morphine, demerol and 11,000 doses of thorazine-a better 
supply, in fact, than the Guyanese government's own, not to mention a surfeit 
of cyanide.9)

     Dr. Layton was married to the daughter of Hugo Phillip, a German banker 
and stockbroker representing the likes of Siemens & Halske, the makers of 
cyanide for the Final Solution, and I.G. Farben, the manufacturer of a lethal 
nerve gas put to the same purpose.10 Dr. Layton,a Quaker, developed a form of
purified uranium used to set off the Manhattan Project's first self-sustaining 
chain reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942 by his wife's German-born 
Uncle, Dr. James Franck.  At Dugway Proving Ground in Utah, Dr. Layton 
concentrated his efforts, as did I.G. Farben, on the development of nerve 

     Dr. Layton later defended his participation in the Army's chemical 
warfare section: "You can blow people to bits with bombs, you can shoot them 
with shells, you can atomize them with atomic bombs, but the same people think 
there's something terrible about poisoning the air and letting people breath 
it.  Anything having to do with gas warfare, chemical warfare, has this taint 
of horror on it, even if you only make people vomit."12

     Nazis and chemical warfare are recurring themes in the aspartame story. 
Currently, the chief patent holder of the sweetener is the Monsanto Co., based 
in St. Louis. In 1967, Monsanto entered into a joint venture with I.G. 
Farbenfabriken, the aforementioned financial core of the Hitler regime and the 
key supplier of poison gas to the Nazi racial extermination program. After the 
Holocaust, the German chemical firm joined with American counterparts in the 
development of chemical warfare agents and founded the "Chemagrow Corporation" 
in Kansas City, Missouri, a front that employed German and American 
specialists on behalf of the U.S. Army Chemical Corps.13

     Dr. Otto Bayer, I.G.'s research director, had a binding relationship 
with Monsanto chemists.14  In the post-war period, Dr. Bayer developed and 
tested chemical warfare agents with Dr. Gerhard Schrader, the Nazi concocter 
of Tabun, the preferred nerve gas of the SS. Schrader was also an 
organophosphate pioneer, and tested the poison on populated areas of West 
Germany under the guise of killing insects.15  Schrader's experiments reek 
suspiciously of the ongoing aerial application of malathion-developed by Dr. 
Schrader, a recruit of the U.S. Chemical Warfare Service when Germany 
surrendered-in present-day Southern Califonia.16

     Another bridge to I.G. Farben was Monsanto's acquisition of American 
Viscose, long owned by the England's Courtauld family. As early as 1928, the 
U.S. Commerce Department issued a report critical of the Courtauld's ties to 
I.G. Farben and the Nazi party.17  Incredibly, George Courtauld was handed an
appointment as director of personnel for England's Special Operations 
Executive, the wartime intelligence service, in 1940.18 A year later, with the 
exhaustion of British military financial reserves, American Viscose, worth 
$120 million was put on the block in New York. The desperate British treasury 
received less than half that amount from the sale, brokered by Siegmund 
Warburg, among others. 19 Monsanto acquired the company in 1949.20 

     The Nazi connection to Monsanto crops up again on the board of directors 
with John Reed, a former crony of "Putzi" Hanfstangl, a Harvard-bred emigre to 
Germany who talked Hitler out of committing suicide in 1924 and contributed to 
the financing of *Mein Kampf*. 21  Reed is also chairman of Citibank and long 
a confederate of the CIA. According to a lawsuit filed by San Francisco 
attorney Melvin Belli, Reed was an instigator, with Ronald Reagan, James Baker 
and Margaret Thatcher, of the "Purple Ink Document," a plan to finance CIA 
covert operations with wartime Japanese gold stolen from a buried Philippine 

     Other covert military connections to Monsanto include Dr. Charles Allen 
Thomas, chairman of the Monsanto Board, 1965[?].  Dr. Thomas directed a group 
of scientists during WW Il in the refinement of plutonium for use in the 
atomic bomb. In the postwar period Monsanto operated Tennessee's Oak Ridge
National Laboratories for the Manhattan Project.23 (Manhattan gestated with 
the Oak Ridge Institute for Nuclear Studies, where Lethal doses of radiation 
were tested on 200 unwary cancer patients, turning them into "nuclear 
calibration devices" gratis the AEC and NASA, until 1974. 24)  Nazi scientists 
and a 7,000 ton stockpile of uranium were delivered to the Project by its 
security and counter-intelligence director, Col. Boris Pash, a G2 designate to 
the CIA's Bloodstone program-and the *eminence grise* of PB/7, a clandestine 
Nazi unit that, according to State Department records, conducted a regimen of 
political assassinations and kidnappings in Europe and the Eastern bloc.25

      Monsanto Director William Ruckelshaus was an acting director of the FBI 
under Richard Nixon, a period in the Bureau s history marred by COINTELPRO 
outrages, including assassinations. Nixon subsequently appointed Ruckelshaus 
to the position of EPA director, a nagging irony given his ties to industry 
(Browning Ferris and Cummins Engine Co.).  CIA counterintelligentsia on the 
Monsanto board include Stansfield Turner, a former Director of Central 
Intelligence, and Earle H. Harbison, an Agency information specialist for 
nineteen years.

     Harbison is also a director of Merrill Lynch, and thus raises the 
spectre of CIA drug dealing. ln 1984 President Ronald Reagan's Commission on 
Organized Crime concluded that Merrill Lynch employed couriers "observed 
transferring enormous amounts of cash through investment houses and banks in 
New York City to Italy and Switzerland. Tens of millions of dollars in heroin 
sales in this country were transferred over seas." Merrill Lynch invested the 
drug proceeds in the New bullion market before making the offshore
transfers. 26  

     As might be expected in view of Monsanto's Nazi, chemical w are and CIA 
ties, NutraSweet is a can of worms unprecedented in the American food 
industry. The history of the product is laden  with flawed and fabricated 
research findings and, when necessary to further the product along, blatant 
lies-the basis of FDA approval and the incredulity of independent medical 

     Senator Metzenbaum described the FDA as "the handmaiden'' of the drug 
industry in 1985, but she comports under all regimes. In the Clinton 
administration for example, Mike Taylor was graced with the position of deputy 
director of the FDA. Taylor is a cousin of Tipper Gore, Vice President Albert 
Gore's wife, and once an outside counsel to Monsanto. (Gore voted with Senate 
conservatives in 1985 against aspartame labelling.)
     Under the tutelage of the Clinton administration, one Chicago reporter 
quipped, the FDA strictly enforces one "unwritten" violation of law-failure to 

       Granitic Believers

     G.D. Sear!e, the pharmaceutical firm that introduced NutraSweet, worked 
symbiotically with federal and congressional officials, bribed investigators 
when violations of law were exposed, *anything* to move aspartame to market. 
As far back as 1969, an internal Searle "strategy memo" concluded the company 
must obtain FDA approval to outpace firms competing for the artificial 
sweetener market. Another  memo in December 1970 urged that FDA officials were 
to be  "brought into a subconscious spirit of participation" with Searle.27 
To that end, with enormous profits at stake, the pharmaceutical house set out 
on a long struggle to transform the  Pentagon's biochemical warfare agent into 
"the taste Mother Nature intended.

     The official story is that aspartame was discovered in 1966  by a 
scientist developing an ulcer drug (not a "food additive"). Supposedly he 
discovered, upon carelessly licking his fingers  that they tasted sweet. Thus
was the chemicals industry blessed  with a successor to saccharine, the 
coal-tar derivative that foundered eight years later under the pressure of 
cancer concerns.             

     Aspartame found early opposition in consumer attorney James Turner, 
author of *The Chemical Feast* and a former  Nader's Raider. At his own 
expense, Turner fought approval for  ten years, basing his argument on 
aspartame's potential side effects, particularly on children. His concern was 
shared by Dr. John Olney, Professor of neuropathology and psychiatry at 
Washington School of Medicine in St. Louis. Dr. Olney found that aspartame, 
combined with MSG seasoning, increased the odds of brain damage in children.

     Other studies have found that children are especially vulnerable to its 
toxic effects, a measure of the relation between consumption and body weight. 
The FDA determined in 1981, when the sweetener was approved, that the maximum 
projected intake of Aspartame is 50 milligrams a day per kilogram of body
weight.  A child of 66 pounds would consume about 23 milligrams by imbibing 
four cans of Diet Coke.  The child might also conceivably down an 
aspartame-flavored snack or two, nearing the FDA's projected maximum daily 
intake.29   Dr. William Partridge, a professor of neuroendocrine regulation 
at MIT, told *Common Cause* in August 1984 that it wouldn't be surprising if a 
child-"confronted with aspartame contained in iced tea chocolate milk, milk 
shakes, chocolate pudding pie, Jello, ice cream and numerous other products"
-consumed 50 milligrams per kilogram in a day.

     Internally, aspartame breaks down into its constituent amino acids and 
methanol, which degrades into formaldehyde. The FDA announced in 1984 that 
"no evidence" has been found to establish that the methanol byproduct reaches 
toxic levels, claiming that "many fruit juices contain higher levels of the 
natural compound."30 But the _Medical World News_ had already reported in 1978 
that the methanol content of aspartame is 1,000 times greater than most foods 
under FDA control.31
     NutraSweet, the "good stuff" of sentimental adverts, is a truly insidious 
product. According to independent trials, aspartame intake is shown by animal 
studies to alter brain chemicals affecting behavior.  Aspartame's effects on 
the brain led Richard Wurtman, an MIT neuroscientist, to the discovery, as 
recorded in _The New England Journal of Medicine_ (No. 309, 1983), that the 
sweetener defeats its purpose as a diet aid, since high doses may instill a 
craving for calorie-laden carbohydrates. One of his pilot studies found that
the NutraSweet-carbohydrate combination increases the "sweetener's effect on 
brain composition." Searle officials denigrated Wurtman 's findings, but the 
American Cancer Society has since confirmed the irony-after tracking 80,000 
women for six years-that "among women who gained weight, artificial sweetener
users gained more than those who didn't use the products," as reported in 
_Medical Self-Care_ (387). (Since his battle with G.D. Searle, Wurtman founded 
Interneuron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., the producer of a sports drink that 
enhances athletic performance, and a weight loss drug marketed in over 40 
countries. Wurtman's share of the company, established in 1989, was worth $10 
million by 1992. 32

     Even more daunting are the findings of Dr. Paul Spiers, a 
neuropsychologist at Boston's Beth Israel Hospital, that aspartame use can 
depress intelligence. For this reason, he selected experimental subjects with 
a history of consuming it but unaware that they might be suffering ill 
effects. The subjects were given NutraSweet in capsules of the FDA's allowable 
limit. Spiers was alarmed to discover that they developed "cognitive 
deficits.'' One of the tests required recall of square patterns and 
alphabetical sequences, becoming increasingly more difficult. The test is 
challenging, but most people improve as they learn how it is done. The
aspartame users, however, did not improve. "Some frankly showed a reverse 
pattern," said Spiers."33
     Aspartame has been shown to erode short-term memory. At the May, 1985 
hearings on NutraSweet, Louisiana Senator Russell Long related a bizarre 
     SENATOR LONG: I have received a letter recently from a person who is well 
known to me and whose word is impeccable, as far as I am concerned. 
     This person told me that she had been dieting and she had been using diet 
drinks with aspartame in it.    
     She said she found her memory was going. She seemed to be completely 
losing her memory. When she would meet people whom she knew intimately, she 
could not recall what their name was, or even who they were.    
     She could not recall a good bit of that which was going on about her to 
the extent that she was afraid she was losing her mind. . . In due course, 
someone suggested that it might be this NutraSweet, so she stopped
using it and her memory came back and her mind was restored.       
     Senator Howard Metzenbaum replied that he had received "a number of 
letters from doctors reporting similar developments. . . There have been
hundreds of incidents of people who have suffered loss of memory, headaches, 
dizziness, and other neurological symptoms which they feel are related to 
aspartame."34   Senator Orrin Hatch, a hidebound archconservative and 
NutraSweet advocate, downplayed criticism of the sugar substitute. "Some 
people have lost their memory after drinking a variety of things," he argued. 
''The bottom line is this: The studies supporting aspartame's approval have 
been examined and reexamined. More than enough sound, valid studies exist to 
demonstrate aspartame's safety."
     Hatch of Utah, reports the _Wall Street Journal_, has "given his strong 
support of the pharmaceutical industries."35  So have the "Hatchlings." David 
Kessler, FDA Commissioner under presidents Bush and Clinton, was once an aide 
to Orrin Hatch. Hatch's former campaign manager and aide, C. McClain Haddow,
was sentenced to prison for conflict-of-interest charges arising from his work 
as a Reagan administration health official. And Thomas Parry, Hatch's former 
chief of staff, has carved a sumptuous life for himself as a Republican 
fund-raiser and lobbyist with clients in the pharmaceutical industry. All 
told, Parry represents 30 clients, including Eli Lilly, Warner-Lambert, and 
Johnson & Johnson, not to mention ranking defense firms and the Bahamas 
government. Parry's pharmaceutical clients have enriched Senator Hatch's 
campaign coffers, and in turn Hatch lavishes his attentions on them.

     By the time Orrin Hatch was stumping for NutraSweet in the U.S. Senate,   
the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta had received 600 letters complaining 
of NutraSweet's adverse effects. The National Soft Drink Association (NSDA) 
had them too. "There have been hundreds of reports from around the country
suggesting a possible relationship between their consumption of NutraSweet and 
subsequent symptoms including headaches, aberrational behavior, slurred 
speech, etc." FDA Commissioner Arthur Hull Hayes, appointed by Ronald Reagan 
in April, 1981 (moving the _New York Times_ to observe that "some industry
officials consider Dr. Hayes more sympathetic to their viewpoints than past 
holders of the office"), considered such complaints "anecdotal.'' 
     Of course, like scores of other conservatives roaming the executive 
branch in the 1980s, the ethics of Arthur Hull Hayes were entirely 
malleable-not only did he approve a product based on studies that were
"scientifically lacking in design and execution," according to a report 
issued by _Science Times_ in February 1985, but upon leaving the FDA he took 
the post of senior medical consultant for Burson-Marsteller, the public 
relations firm retained by G.D. Searle.37
     Burson-Marsteller, a huge public relations conglomerate, swelled in the 
1980s by leveraging smaller competitors -including Black, Manafort, Stone & 
Kelley, a lobbying firm best known for influence peddling along the 
Beltway-presently outsizing even the Hill & Knowlton empire. Typical in the 
aspartame story are Burson-Marsteller's links to the intelligence community 
and rightwing operatives of the GOP. Thomas Devereaux Bell, Jr., an executive 
officer of the firm, is the former chairman of the Center for naval Analysis
in Alexandria, Virginia. Bell was also the executive director of Ronald 
Reagan's Inaugural Ball Committee (in which capacity he ushered in the likes 
of Licio Gelli, head of P2, the notorious Italian secret society). Bell's
career in Washington began in 1971 as a deputy director of Richard Nixon's 
Committee to ReElect the President. He went on to serve as an administrative 
aide to Senator William Brock and the Reagan transition team.38
     At the FDA, Hayes used aspartame as a political statement that the 
Reagan administration was embarking on a grand voyage of conservative 
"regulatory reform," sluicing through treasonous liberal constraints on "free 
enterprise." Despite what one FDA scientist described as 'very serious' 
questions concerning pivotal brain tumor tests, Hayes eagerly approved 
aspartame for use in dry foods in July 1981.39  Three FDA scientists advised 
against the approval of aspartame, citing G.D. Searle's own brain tumor tests, 
because there was no proof that "aspartame is safe for use as a food additive 
under its intended conditions of use. "40
     Hayes has since declined to answer any questions about his decision, 
which ignored the recommendations of the FDA's own board of inquiry. He 
relied instead on a study conducted by Japan's Ajinomoto, Inc.-a licensee of 
G.D. Searle. Hayes acknowledged in his 1981 decision that he had only 
consulted a preliminary report of the Japanese evaluation, and only *skimmed*  
it. More serious, Hayes violated federal law by basing approval on the test, 
as it had not been reviewed by the FDA board.41
     Who is Arthur Hull Hayes? He was no disinterested bureaucrat. True to the 
biochemical theme of the aspartame story, Dr. Hayes served in the Army 
Medical Corps in the 1960s. According to the _Washington Post_,  Hayes was 
assigned to Edgewood  Arsenal at Fort Detrick, Maryland, the Army's chemical 
warfare base of operations, "one of a number of doctors who conducted drug 
tests for the Army on volunteers . . . to determine the effect of a 
mind-disorienting drug called CAR 301,060." According to a declassified 1976
report prepared by the Army Inspector General, Hayes had planned a research 
study to develop the mind-altering CAR 301,060 as a *crowd control agent.* In 
1972, Hayes left Edgewood Arsenal, and a new plan for the experiments was 
drawn up by Edgewood physicians. The 1976 report notes that similar tests had
been conducted before Hayes took charge. 42

     Also at the center of the effort to land FDA approval of  NutraSweet 
stood Donald Rumsfeld-"Rummy" to his friends -chairman of G.D. Searle upon 
leaving the Ford administration in 1977. Rumsfeld, the product of a wealthy 
Chicago suburb, was a Princeton graduate and a Navy pilot during the Korean 
conflict. He entered politics as a Congressional House aide attending night 
classes at Georgetown University Law School, which is closely aligned with the 

    Rumsfeld campaigned ambitiously for Richard Nixon, who drafted him to 
direct the Office of Equal Opportunity on May 26,1969. He quickly established 
an office to spy on his employees in a holy crusade to flush out 
"revolutionaries" said to be granting federal funds to politically subversive 
organizations-a throwback to McCarthy's tantrums.44 Rumsfeld also figured in 
Nixon's notorious Power Control Group, spearheaded by Charles Colson and John 
Ehrlichman.45 Gerald Ford named Rumsfeld executive chief of staff upon the 
resignation of Al Haig. In 1986 he was named chairman of the Institute for 
Contemporary Studies, a neoconservative "think tank" (read: propaganda mill) 
established in 1972 by Edwin Meese and Caspar Weinberger. ICS has sponsored 
such opinion-shaping projects as a study of expansions in "entitlement 
programs" and their erosive effects on the economy, and a book on the uses of 
coercion by Communist regimes.46 Rumsfeld, at 43, became the county's youngest 
secretary of defense. For many years he has been a vocal proponent of chemical 
weapons.47 He is chairman of the Rand Corp.48 In 1988, he dropped  a 
presidential bid, and was named a v.p. of Westmark Systems, led by past NSA 
Director Bobby Ray Inman. Rumsfeld was one of Westmark's founding directors, 
sharing the board with Joseph Amato, a former vice president at TRW (and a 
colleague of Inman's at the National Security Agency), and Dale Frey,
chairman of the General Electric Investment Corp.49

     Rumsfeld, a veteran political operative, was an adept at the vulgar art 
of public relations. He was recruited by G.D. Searle because he had "a Boy 
Scout image," according to one company official.50  A house politician was 
precisely what Searle needed to compensate for the damage done by independent 
researchers concerned about the toxic effects of aspartame. In March 1976, an 
FDA task force brought into question *all* of the company's testing procedures 
between 1967 and 1975. The task force described "serious deficiencies in 
Searle's operations and practices which undermine the basis for reliance on 
Searle's integrity." The final report of the FDA task force noted faulty  and 
fraudulent product testing, knowingly misrepresented findings, and instances 
of "irrelevant or unproductive animal research where experiments have been 
poorly conceived, carelessly executed or inaccurately analyzed."51

     Richard Merrill, the FDA's chief counsel, petitioned Samuel K. Skinner 
U.S. Attorney for the northern district of Illinois, for a grand jury 
investigation of Searle's "willful and knowing failure" to submit required
test reports, and for "concealing material facts and making false statements" 
in reports on aspartame submitted to the agency.52 Yet industry analysts, 
interviewed by the _Wall Street Journal_ six months after Rumsfeld's 
appointment as chairman, noted a rapid turnabout in Searle's fortunes as a 
result of his direction.53
     Searle denies that Chairman Rumsfeld ever had any contact with the FDA, 
or the Carter and Reagan administrations, to lobby for aspartame.54 But the 
_Wall Street Journal_ article reported in 1977 that Rumsfeld "keenly 
understands the importance of a public image. So he has been mending fences 
with the FDA by personally asking top agency officials what Searle should do 
to straighten out its reputation." Westley M. Dixon, Searle's vice chairman, 
told the _Journal_ that without Rumsfeld "we wouldn't have gotten approval for
Norpace," a drug investigated by the FDA in 1975.55 
     The grand jury investigation of Searle disintegrated in January, 1977 
when the FDA formally requested that Samuel Skinner, U.S. attorney and a 
protege of Illinois Governor James Thompson, investigate the firm for 
falsifying and withholding aspartame test data. A month later, Skinner met 
with attorneys from Searle's Chicago law firm, Sidley & Austin. Jimmy Carter 
ascended to The presidency a few weeks later. He announced that Skinner would 
not be asked to remain in office, but the outgoing Republican wasn't found
wanting for employment. He informed reporters that he had already begun 
"preliminary discussions" with Sidley & Austin.56
     G.D. Searle and Sidley & Austin are Siamese Twins. Edwin Austin, a senior 
partner in the law firm, was appointed to the Illinois Supreme Court in 1969. 
The Searle family drew upon his services extensively, and he taught Sunday 
school in Wilmette, a Chicago suburb, as did Dr. Claude Howard Searle, whose 
father cofounded the pharmaceutical house.
     The firm is grafted to the beating heart of the Republican party. Morris 
Leibman of Sidley & Austin was for many years chairman of the American Bar 
Association's "Standing Committee on Law and National Security," a position 
that won him Reagan's Medal of Freedom in 1981.57         

     John E. Robson, head of Sidley & Austin's Washington office, was 
appointed executive vice-president of Searle & Co. in 1977, the same year 
Skinner was named a partner in the law firm. Robson, too, was active in 
Republican politics. He was the first General Counsel of the Department of 
Transportation, and at the behest of Gerald Ford in 1975, chairman of the 
Civil Aeronautics Board.58 He moved on to Searle, and stayed with the company 
until it was bought outright by Monsanto in 1985. Howard Trienens, a law clerk 
to the late chief Justice Vinson in the early 1950s, was a G.D. Searle 
director and worked for Sidley & Austin since 1949.59 Archconservative
California Governor George Deukmejian joined Sidley & Austin's Los Angeles 
branch upon leaving office in 1991, and is reportedly making a "very 
comfortable" living. He has a keen "sense" for bringing in corporate clients, 
a partner in the firm told the Los Angeles Times, many of them past 
contributors to his campaign fund. Deukmejian's business connections have 
given him a reputation as a Sidley & Austin "rainmaker," but the L.A. City 
Council has questioned his ethics in promoting a contract with Sumitomo Corp. 
on a metropolitan railway project.60         
     Searle aside, Sidley & Austin has served some of the most notorious
special interests in the country. The firm lobbied overtime, for instance, on 
behalf of Charles Keating's Lincoln Savings & Loan, and provided counsel on 
tax issues and dealing with federal authorities. The firm assisted Keating 
when Lincoln was foundering, and curried political favor to keep the S&L 
operating despite massive debts. As a result, the firm was forced to settle 
with Lincoln depositors in 1991, agreeing to cover an excess of $40 million 
in claims.6l Sidley & Austin also represented the AMA when a group of 
drugstore chains sued seven drug makers-including Searle-for price fixing and 
antitrust violations. The lawsuit, filed in October 1993, amounts to billions 
of dollars in compensation.62
     Skinner recused himself from the Searle prosecution four months before 
leaving offtce-asking, in a memo to subordinates, that the matter be kept 
"confidential to avoid any undo embarrassment"-a stall that nearly allowed 
the statute of limitations to expire. William Conlon, a senior U.S. attorney, 
inherited the case. He eased off, citing case load pressures, and gave a deaf 
ear to complaints of delays from the Justice Department, which urged that a 
grand jury be convened to prosecute Searle for falsifying NutraSweet test 
data. In January, 1979, Conlon too joined Sidley & Austin.63
     The 33-page letter from Merrill to Skinner charged Searle with criminal 
fraud in its animal test results. In 1984 Common Cause asked Dan Reidy of the 
U. S. attorney's office how the  investigation had stalled. Reidy replied that 
because it was a grand jury investigation, he was "bound by law to secrecy." 
A Searle spokesman exploited the demise of the grand July  claim that there 
was "no validity to the charges, that the company had been "exonerated." 
Philip Brodsky, an investigator for the FDA, expressed surprise that Searle
hadn't been indicted. "I thought surely they would prosecute them," he said.64

   Eleven years later Senator Metzenbaum issued a press release charging 
Skinner with stalling the criminal investigation as he prepared to decamp 
from office. Metzenbaum and his staff demanded an FBI investigation of 
Skinner's mishandling of the case. In December 1988, the conflict-of-interest 
bombshell blew up in the face of newly elected George Bush, who was about to 
appoint Skinner to the position of Transportation Secretary.65
     Like most of the Machiavellians in the NutraSweet story, Samuel Knox 
Skinner kept company with hardright Republicans. He entered politics as a 
campaign volunteer for Barry Goldwater. 66  In 1975, he was appointed to 
Federal Prosecutor in Chicago by President Ford. Sidley & Austin promoted him 
to senior partner after only one year with the firm. Skinner was the director 
of George Bush's presidential campaign in Illinois. On occasion he was 
berated for his involvement with the state's Republican apparatus: In 1987, 
for instance, the Chicago SunTimes linked him with a clutch of lawyers close 
to Governor Thompson, who were awarded lucrative assignments handling the 
affairs of financially crippled insurance companies. Skinner was a leading 
light of the Illinois Fraud Prevention Commission -he targeted welfare cheats 
(as opposed to white-collar criminals in the drug industry)-and President 
Reagan's  Commission on Organized Crime. In December 1991, he left 
Transportation to  take the position of President Bush's Chief of Staff.67
"A Shocking Story"

     Had Skinner pressed on with the investigation, aspartame's manufacturer 
would have been forced to explain a long history of fabricated laboratory 
tests and slippery dealings with federal regulators, not to mention the 
     Dr. Alexander Schmidt, a former FDA commissioner, said of the original 
Aspartame Task Force investigation: "What was discovered was 
reprehensible. . .incredibly sloppy science." A 1980 public board of inquiry 
opined that the company's testing procedures were "bizarre."68 

     Searle's decision to market aspartame culminated with the 
falsification of test results to obtain FDA approval . In November 1969, 
officials of the firm hired Dr. Harry Waisman, a researcher for the University
of Wisconsin, to test for brain damage in rhesus monkeys. Seven monkeys were 
fed aspartame for periods up to one year. In the end, though, the evaluation 
flopped because the technicians failed to perform the intelligence tests and 
autopsies required to determine brain damage. When questioned about the false 
data by the FDA, Searle officials claimed to have had no direct control over 
the study. But the protocol for the study was written by a Searle pathologist 
*after* it had begun. And, according to Dr. Gross, "Frequent high-level 
communications took place between Searle executives and Dr. Waisman prior to 
and during the study."  69
     To make matters worse, Dr. Waisman died in March, 1971, in mid-study.    
     Searle submitted the toxicity test to the FDA on October 12, 1972. It 
bore Dr. Waisman's name as coauthor.  Richard Merrill noted: "Dr. Waisman was 
the expert in the field and his name would carry great weight," but complained 
to Skinner that Searle took "great literary license" in drafting the report, 
"which *covers up* the admitted inadequacy of the design, control and 
documentation of this study." 70

     Searle submitted some 150 test reports, yet Dr. Martha Freeman of the 
FDA Bureau of Drugs noted in a 1973 memo, "the information provided is 
inadequate to permit an evaluation of the potential toxicity of 
aspartame." 71  The FDA task force set up by Dr. Schmidt in 1975 reviewed 
25 studies on seven products  manufactured by G.D. Searle, a total of 500 
pages and 15,000 exhibits.72  Searle was held to be the author of  "reports 
that the FDA believes contain false information" and "concealed facts 
resulting from having drafted Dr. Waisman's 'pilot' monkey study so that it 
would *appear* to be a valid, thorough scientific study," and not a forgery.

      In 1975 Searle submitted a battery of cancer test results entitled "The 
Willigan Report, which contained a statistical table that excluded four 
malignant mammary tumors detected by Dr. Willigan and incorporated in his 
data. The malignancies were made to appear benign. Searle dismissed the 
misrepresentation as a computer "programming error" undetected by supervising 
statisticians. Dr. Gross interviewed all concerned with the tests. He 
concluded in a statement to Metzenbaum's committee in August, 1985, that "to 
accept the Searle explanation is to believe that the unfavorable mammary 
malignancy data were innocently omitted from the summary table four separate 
times by three different individuals."74 
     The Waisman and Willigan Reports were prepared by Searle Labs, as were 
88% of the safety evaluations conducted by 1981.75 They are typical of the 
shoddy documentation upon which FDA Commissioner Hayes based his decision that 
aspartame does not constitute a public health risk. Although two members of 
the 1975 task force considered the tests to be criminal frauds, Hayes and 
Searle declared the results valid. In an appeal to Hayes' decision, James 
Turner said: "The entire argument that since the studies are no longer 
considered fraudulent *by FDA* they are therefore scientifically valid is an 
example of a rhetorical shell game that, if successful, can only bring 
discredit and ridicule on the FDA."76 
      Dr. Gross, the chief scientist on the FDA task force, told the CBS 
*Nightly News* staff in January, 1984, that Searle made "*deliberate* 
decisions" to cloak the toxic effects of aspartame. "They took great pains to
camouflage these shortcomings of the study,'' Gross said, "as I say, filter 
and just present to the FDA  what they wished the FDA to know. And they did 
other *terrible* things. For instance, animals would develop tumors while they 
were under study-well, G.D. Searle would *remove these tumors from the 
animals*," surgically masking the cancerous effects of aspartame.77 Yet one 
1986 _New England Journal of Medicine_ article claimed that noncompulsive 
aspartame intake has "no sinister effects."
     Dr. Woodrow Monte told CBS, "Every time a truly impartial team of 
scientists have looked at NutraSweet, it has been turned down." Dr. Monte, 
director of the nutrition laboratory at Arizona State University, held that 
these studies "show *extreme* dangers over the long term."78

     Dr. Monte was rewarded for his comments by a fusillade from the press. 
On February 23, Dan Dorfman, a business news reporter for WCBS in New York, 
broke a story that several CBS employees had invested in options on NutraSweet 
that pay off if the stock price drops.79 Dr. Monte and his attorney had 
purchased the options as well. It emerged that the CBS staffers had purchased 
the options on the advice of stock market newsletters printed prior to the 
nightly news report. The investments were not illegal, nor did they reap a
profit. Searle's stock was not affected by the publicity, and the investors 
took a loss.
     Nevertheless, the _Wall Street Journal_ ran a front-page story condemning 
the "inside trading." Reed Irvine's Accuracy in Media picked up the cudgel 
against Dr. Monte and the CBS employees as if they'd committed a shocking Wall 
Street swindle.80 Accuracy in Media, formed in 1969, is an intelligence 
operation abetted by the CIA. The rabidly right-wing organization was 
co-founded by Bernard Yoh, a counter-insurgency adviser under the notorious 
Edward Landsdale in Vietnam, and a fount of CIA funds to military intelligence 
units in the Delta region. Board member Elbridge Durbrow was once a foreign 
service "diplomat," and advised commanders of Maxwell Air Force Base in 
Alabama. Another AIM board member, Frank Trager, has conducted research for 
the Pentagon and CIA, and churns out pamphlets on international
business and intelligence operations. Major financial contributors to AIM 
include Richard Nixon, "Bebe" Rebozo, Edward Scripps, the wretched Dr. Edward 
Teller and former Treasury Secretary William E. Simon.81
     Accuracy in Media is a strident advocate of the chemical industry, which 
provides it with generous funding. The media "watchdog" has long waged a 
campaign on behalf of dioxin, denouncing the "Agent Orange scare" as the 
creation of delirious, anti-business liberals. Among the leading manufacturers 
of Agent Orange for the Vietnam war effort was Monsanto, preparing-at the 
very moment AIM took aim at detractors of NutraSweet[TM]- to buy G.D. Searle. 

The Good Stuff

     Dr. Monte cautioned in 1987 that he didn't want to sound  like a 
"conspiracy theory" hound, but the aspartame  chronology clarifies its 
commercial emergence. The  FDA Board of Inquiry advised against the
sweetener on September 30, 1980. On January21, 1981-the day after Reagan's  
inauguration-Searle submitted "ten new studies." Dr. Monte  was skeptical. 
"It is impossib1e that they could have conducted those studies in four 
months," he said. "Obviously they'd  previously done those studies but hadn't 
officially submitted  them, although much of the information in those studies 
was informally presented to the board of inquiry." With the "new  tests" in 
hand, Hayes acted as though critical, overriding evi dence had proven the 
safety of aspartame.82    

     James Turner, representing thc Community Nutrition Institute in 
Washington, D.C., said that Arthur Hull Hayes, to arrive at his decision that 
aspartame is safe, firewalked apath "through a mass of scientific
mismanagement, improper procedures, wrong conclusions and general scientific 
inexactness." Two FDA officials declared in 1985 that Hayes was determined to 
clear all obstacles to NutraSweet approval. One FDA bureaucrat reported that 
"people at the top" were closed to questions concerning the quality of the 
tests submitted by Searle.83
     In July, 1984 a broad investigation of NutraSweet's adverse effects was 
conducted by the FDA and the Centers for Disease Control. Federal health 
officials said at the outset that they believed no harm would emerge from the 
data to indict aspartame. Robert McQuate, Ph.D., science director of the 
National Soft Drink Association, predicted with mystical confidence that the 
study would "provide further evidence that aspartame is a safe ingredient."84
     Dr. McQuate didn't fret the goring of his biochemical ox. In November 
the CDC announced that no "serious, widespread" side effects had been found.85 
It was "unlikely," said CDC officials, that "complainers" could establish a 
link between NutraSweet and their maladies-the same bromide once tossed to 
victims of radiation experiments. The reported side-effects of aspartame fell 
into two distinct categories: central nervous system (65%) and 
gastrointestinal disorders (24%).86 Yet the  CDC claimed erroneously that no 
consistent reaction pattern had been found. 87  Robert Shapiro, then president 
of Nutrasweet, used the occasion to enthuse that the survey "clearly 
established the safety" of the sugar substitute.88  Nevertheless, the CDC
recommended a new set of studies because aspartame users continued to 
complain of ill effects.

     Based on the ersatz assurances of the CDC report, PepsiCo announced that 
it would drop saccharine and begin sweetening its diet drinks entirely with 
aspartame. The decision would have been approved by Wayne Calloway, then CEO 
of PepsiCo and director of the multinationals Citicorp, General Electric and 
Exxon. In 1983 soda bottlers, organized around Pepsi had petitioned the FDA 
for a delay in approval of NutraSweet for soft drinks until further evaluation 
verified its safety-interpreted by market analysts as a ploy to drive down
the price of the sweetener. They soon abandoned the effort to block approval 
(and all health concerns they might have had). "We believe saccharine is 
safe," Pepsi USA President Roger Enrico lied, but "we wanted the taste 
improvement." PepsiCo, already drawing on a tenth of Searle's 7.5 million 
pound annual production of aspartame, signed an agreement with G.D. Searle to 
boost purchases 500 percent.89 (Like other corporate pushers of aspartame, 
Pepsi has long maintained ties to the intelligence community. One product of 
the relationship was a Pepsi plant in Vientiane, Laos with a laboratory 
outfitted for heroin production. Alfred McCoy, in *The Politics of Heroin in 
Southeast Asia* documents the efforts of Richard Nixon to promote the
plant's construction in 1965, and the CIA's continuing subsidization of the 
plant. McCoy complained to Pepsi officials that the facilities were but a 
cover for the importation and refinement of morphine, but it continued
to operate unhindered.) 
     Yet another report was filed by Reagan's General Accounting Office in 
July 1987, this one on the FDA's handling of aspartame. The GAO concluded that 
the agency had followed proper procedures and conducted valid studies. But the 
report noted that the FDA had followed guidelines for food -not drug- testing, 
despite the recommendation of the agency's own biologists favoring *drug* 
tests, which are considerably more stringent. This recommendation was 
overruled by FDA officials.90

     Another blemish in the study was bared by Dr. Louis Elsas, director of 
medical genetics at Emory University in Atlanta. "They never asked the right 
questions about what it does to brain function in humans," he told the 
_Washington Post_. Half of the scientists polled expressed reservations about 
the safety of NutraSweet. One-fifth reported "major concerns." Monsanto 
quibbled in a press release that these critics had themselves never conducted 
aspartame research. A score of independent scientists have. They found side
     Senator Metzenbaum berated Searle's flawed and fabricated tests at the 
August 1, 1985 Senate hearings. "The FDA," he said, "is content to have the 
manufacturer of aspartame, G.D. Searle, conduct these studies. How *absurd*."

     He also faulted the AMA:
          The _Journal of the American Medical Association_ recently published 
a report on aspartame  which, with some significant disclaimers, stated it was 
safe for most people.
          I wish that this report could ease my concerns. It does not. It 
merely restates the FDA position which relies solely on the tests conducted by 
G.D. Searle. As I have indicated these tests are under a cloud.  In addition, 
the concerns raised recently by the scientists ... were not even included in
the  report. 

     In defense of the tests, executives of G.D. Searle argued that the 
sweetener has been approved by foreign regulatory agencies and the World 
Health Organization. But H.J. Roberts, an internal medicine specialist in
West Palm Beach, Florida, reviewed the foreign studies and found that "the 
vast majority of these agencies accepted company-sponsored research without 
ever having done independent confirmatory studies.''91
    Deficiencies in testing were aggravated by a lack of laboratory training 
at Searle. One of the pivotal safety studies involved fetal damage, but the 
FDA task force found that the medical researcher in charge was "inexperienced 
in conducting studies of this nature and yet given full responsibility." They 
were appalled to discover that his sole credential was a field study of the 
cottontail rabbit for the Illinois Wildlife Service, yet at Searle he'd been 
assigned to laboratory training and supervision. When asked about his 
*crriculum vitae* in fetal research, he replied that he'd once attended a 
seminar on the subject, and the company had provided him with a stack of 
reference works.92 (Yet J.D. Searle, in its 1981 Annual Report, billed itself 
as "a research based pharmaceutical company.") 
     Corporate control of NutraSweet testing continues at Monsanto, torturing 
the ethics of academic medicine. In August 1987 the University of Illinois, a 
recipient of Monsanto's largess, issued a study exonerating aspartame of 
causing seizures in laboratory animals. Dave Hattan, a safety regulator for the
FDA, responded that the study only confirmed the need for testing on humans. 
At independent labs, he insisted, aspartame provoked seizures. 
     Industrial support tends to contaminate test data. Dr. Elsas, in a 1988 
letter to the _New England Journal of Medicine_, advocates unbiased review of 
clinical research. "The NutraSweet Co.," he said, "may have had an interest in 
protocols that would find that their product had no untoward effects." 94 
Monsanto reportedly granted one NutraSweet researcher a $1.3 million 
honorarium.95 The same hired gun willing to manipulate lab results will have 
no qualms publicly defending a tainted pharmaceutical, like the diabetic 
specialist who objected that a Senate hearing on aspartame, which called him 
as a witness, might arouse groundless public anxiety.96
     Victims and health activists have attempted in the courts to put a stop 
to the marketing of NutraSweet, to no avail. In 1985 a coalition of consumer 
groups were handed a ruling by the federal Circuit Court of Appeals for the 
District of Columbia that the FDA had followed proper procedures in approving 
aspartame for soft drinks. A year later the _Washington Post_ reported that 
the Supreme Court again refused to consider the case "despite critics' 
arguments that the product, sold under the brand name NutraSweet, may cause 
brain damage."97 
     Likewise, the medical establishment has thrown up an impenetrable wall to 
aspartame critics. Dr. Roberts, author of a brief study, 
"Aspartame-Associated Confusion and Memory Loss: A Possible Human Model for
Early Alzheimer's Disease," found it impossible to publish the article in a 
peer review medical journal. This was peculiar, he thought, "considering the 
increasing magnitude of Alzheimer's disease, and the relevance of my 
observations to newer biochemical findings and avenues of research." He can 
"personally vouch for the *enormous* difficulty in getting published articles
concerning reactions to aspartame products," a trend in censorship with 
"ominous overtones." The options, Dr. Roberts says, are "generally limited to 
'burying' the findings in a small-circulation journal (such as the bulletin of 
a county medical society), reporting the results as a letter to the editor, 
or (unfortunately, most often) discarding the project."98

     Silence surrounds the most odious conspiracies.

    1. "Sweet Talk," Science and the Citizen column, _Scientific American_, 
July, 1987, p. 15.  
    2. "Adverse Effects of Aspartame-January '86 through December '90," 
Current Bibliography series, National Library of Medicine pamphlet, National 
Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1991.   
    3. "Pepsi Switches Sweeteners-Aspartame Winning Diet Cola Market," 
_Washington Post_, November 2, 1984, p. A-1.   
    4. Mae Brussell, World Watchers #842, KAZU-FM, Monterey, CA., January 25, 
    5. _Moody 's Industrial Manual_, 1975, p 2606    
    6. G.D. Searle's 1981 _Annual Report_. Also, Arnold Foster and Benjamin R. 
Epstein, *Cross-Currents*, Doubleday & Co. (New York: 1956), p. 153. 
    7. Nancy Lisagor and Frank Lipsius, *A Law Unto Itself: The Untold Story 
of the Law Firm of Sullivan & Cromwell*, William Morrow (New York: 1988), 
pp. 13738, 163. 
    8. John Marks, *The Search for "The Manchurian Candidate ": The CIA and 
Mind Control*, Times Books (New York: 1979), pp.58,67 & 212. Marks writes that 
incapacitating "large numbers of people fell to the Army Chemical Corps, which 
also tested LSD and even stronger hallucinogens. The CIA concentrated on
    9. John Peer Nugent, *White Night.- The Untold Story of What Happened 
Before-and Beyond-Jonestown*, Rawson, Wade (New York: 1979), pp. 143, 177.  
   10. Michael Meiers, *Was Jonestown a CIA Medical Experiment?A Review of the 
Evidence*, Mellen House (Lampeter, UK: 1988) p. 42.   
   11. Ibid., p. 43.  
   12. Ibid., pp. 42-43. For a sanitized account of Dr. Layton's career, see 
Min S. Yee and Thomas N. Layton, *In My Father 's House: The Story of the 
Layton Family and the Reverend Jim Jones*, Holt, Rinehart and Winston 
(New York, 1981).  
   13. National Council of the National Front of Democratic Germany and the 
Committee of Anti-Fascist Resistance Fighters of the German Democratic 
Republic, *The Brown Book: War and Nazi Criminals in West Germany*, Verlag 
Zeit im Bild, 1965, pp. 33-34. 
   14. Dan J. Forrestal, *Faith, Hope & $5,000: The Story of Monsanto*, Simon 
and Schuster (New York: 1977), p. 159.  
   15. *Brown Book*, p. 34.  
   16. Tom Bower, *The Paperclip Conspiracy: The Hunt for the Nazi 
Scientists*, Little, Brown & Co. (Boston 1987), pp. 93, 95.
   17. Howard W. Ambruster, *Treason's Peace: German Dyes and American Dupes*, 
Beechhurst Press (New York: 1947), p.144 
   18. Nigel West, *MI6: British Secret Intelligence Service Operations, 
1909-1945*, Random House (New York: 1983), p.92 
   19. Jaques Attali, *A Man of Influence: The Extraordinary Career of S. G. 
Warburg*, Adler & Adler (Bethesda, Maryland: 1987),p. 167.   
   20. Forrestal, p. 121ff.  
   21. Anthony Cave Brown, *The Last Hero, Wild Bill Donovan*, Vintage 
(New York: 1982), pp. 210211. Also: Ernst Hanfstangl, _Unheard Witness_, J.R. 
Lippincott (New York: 1957)  
   22. "Search for the Tiger's Treasure," _Las Vegas Sun_, December 26, 1993, 
   23. _Moody 's Industrial Manual_, 1968, p. 4080.  
   24. "Radiation and the Guinea Pigs," _Guardian_, March 3, 1994, p. 3. Also 
see, "Nuclear Scientists Irradiated People in Secret Research," _New York 
Times_, December 17, 1993, p. Al.        
   25. Christopher Simpson, *Blowback: America's Recruitment of Nazis and Its 
Effects On the Cold War*, Wiedenfeld & Nicholson (New York: 1988), pp. 26, 
152-53. Col. Pash, a former high school gym teacher, was an officer
of the Office of Policy coordination under Frank Wisner. His unit, writes 
Simpson, "known as PB/7, was given a written charter that read in part that 
'PB/7 will be responsible for assassinations, kidnaping, and such other 
functions as from time to time may be given it... by higher authority."' Pash 
was a member of the Russian Orthodox Church, a veteran of the Russian Civil 
War. Monsanto's Clinton Engineering Works in Oak Ridge became the Manhattan 
Project's headquarters in 1943, and was "manned almost entirely by
experienced officers and agents of the CIC." See lan Sayer and Douglas 
Botting, *America's Secret Army: The Untold Story of the Counter intelligence 
Corps*, Franklin Watts (New York: 1989), pp. 71ff.,346.     
   26. Robin Thomas Naylor, *Hot Money and the Politics of Debt*, Simon & 
Schuster (New York, 1987), p.289.  
   27. "Statement from Adrian Gross, Former FDA Investigator and Scientist," 
_Congressional Record_, August 1, 1985, p. S10835.  
   28. Florence Graves, "How Safe is Your Diet Soft Drink?" _Common Cause_, 
   30. "FDA Finding on Aspartame," _New York Times_, January 14,1984, p. 28.    
   31. Article in Medical World News,1978, cited in I .N. Love "NutraSweet 
Isn't that Sweet," _Gentle Strength Times_, October 1987, p. 3.
   32. "Dick Wurtman's Ideas Aren't So Crazy After All," _Business Week_, 
December 14, 1992, p. 60.  
   33 . "A Sour View of Aspartame ," _San Francisco Chronicle_, August 25, 
   34. "Amendment No. 60" (debate), _Congressional Record_, May 7, l985,
p. S5516.
   35. "Lobbyist's Cozy Ties with Ex-Boss Sen. Hatch Include Client Referrals, 
Political Fund-Raising," _Wall Street Journal_, February 18, 1993. Eli Lilly 
contributed $17,500 to Hatch's campaign chest between 1985 and 1988. Sen. 
Hatch filed a of friend-of-the-court brief on behalf of Eli Lilly in a 1989 
patent case. Other pharmaceutical houses enjoy his political favors. Lobbyist 
Thomas Parry remains a key adviser to Sen. Hatch:- "Nobody gets better care 
than his former chief of staff," reports the _Journal_.
   36. Ibid.      
   37. Jane E. Brody, "Sweetener Worries Some Scientists,"  _Science Times_, 
February 5, 1985.
   38. _Who 's Who in Industry and Finance_, 97th ed., Macmillian (Wilmette, 
IL.) p. 583.
   39."Food and Drug Administration Food Additive Approval  Process Followed 
for Aspartame," GAO Report B223552, June 18,1987.
   40. "GAO Investigating NutraSweet Approval," UPI, reprinted in 
_Congressional Record_, August 1, 1985,p. S10823.
   41. Graves.
   42. "Head of FDA Tested Drugs on Volunteers," _Washington Post_, June 26, 
1983, p. A4.
   43. Austin H. Kiplinger, *Washington Now*, Harper & Row  (New York: 1975), 
pp. 36-37.
   44. Daniel Guttman and Barry Willner, *The Shadow Government: The 
Government's Multimillion Dollar Giveaway of its Decision-Making Powers to 
Private Management Consultants, ''Experts, " and Think Tanks*, Pantheon, 
(New York:1989),p.173.
   45. Bruce Oudes, ed., *From: The President-Richard Nixon 's Secret Files*, 
Harper & Row (New York: 1989), p. 173.
   46. James A Smith, *The Idea Brokers: Think Tanks and the Rise of the New 
Policy Elite*, Free Press (New York: 1991), p.282.
   47. Sterling Seagrave, *Yellow Rain: A Journey Through The Terror of 
Chemical Warfare*, M. Evans and Co. (New York: 1981), pp. 258 "After a meeting 
with  President Nixon, Representative Gerald Ford attacks politicians who 
criticize the Pentagon CBW efforts, saying the critics seem to favor 
'unilateral disarmament."'
   48. Christopher Palmeri, "Act Three," _Forbes_, October 26, 1992, p. 88
   49. "Westmark Systems Expands Board, Hires 3 New Vice Presidents," _Wall 
Street Journal_, February 11,1988, p.33.
   50 Graves.
   52 "Hon. Samuel K. Skinner," _Congressional Record_,  Congressional 
Printing Office, Washington, D.C., August 1, 1985, pp. S10827, S10835.
   53. Graves.
   54. _Congressional Record_, August 1,1985, p. S10823.
   55. Graves.
   56. "Critics Cause Bush Cabinet Search to Stumble," _Los Angeles Times_, 
December 22,1988.
   57. Herman Rogan, *Traditions and Challenges: The Story of Sidley & 
Austin*, R.R. Donelly & Sons (Chicago: 1983), p.266.
   58. *Who's Who in America*, 48th ed., 1994.
   59. Ibid.
   60. "Deukmejian Thrives in Private Life, Law Work," _Los Angeles Times_, 
January 3, 1992, p. Al.
   61. "Chicago Law Firm Agrees to Pay Up to $34 Million in Lincoln S&L 
Case," _Los Angeles Times_, May 21, 1991, p. D5;and "Sidley & Austin RTC Said 
to Reach Pact," _Wall Street Journal_, October 31, 1991, p. B4. The basis of 
the suit was a memo written on May 10, 1988 by Margery Waxman, a partner in 
Sidley & Austin's Washington office, to Charles Keating. In it, she said 
"pressure" had been applied to M. Danny Wall, then chairman of the Home Loan 
Bank Board, "to work toward meeting your demands and he has so instructed his 
   62. "Suit Accuses 7 Drug Makers of Price-Fixing," _Los Angeles Times_, 
October 15, 1993, p. Dl. Other pharmaceutical houses accused of conspiring to 
fix prescription drug prices included Smith-Kline-Beecham, Ciba-Geigy Corp., 
American Home Products, Schering-Plough and Glaxo.
   63. Ida Honorof, "FDA Coverup of Hazards of Nutra-Sweet," _Report to 
Consumers_, Vol. XVIII, No.401, December, 1987. Also, "Two Ex-U.S. 
Prosecutors' Roles in Case Against Searle are Questioned in Probe," _Wall 
Street Journal_, February 7,1986, p. 4. Ironically, William Conlon won an 
appointment to the Illinois State Board of Ethics in 1982 (Kogan, p.359).
   64. Graves
   65. _Los Angeles Times_, December 22, 1988.
   66. "Sam Skinner: A Pragmatist in a Storm," _Wall Street Journal_, 
December 6, 1991.
   67. "Samuel Knox Skinner," _New York Times_, December 23, 1988.
   68. Graves. 
   69. "Statement from Adrian Gross, Former FDA Investigator and Scientist," 
_Congressional Record_, August 1, 1985, p.  S10835.
   70. _Congressional Record_, August 1, 1985, p. S 10831, and  "Statements 
from Adrian Gross," p. S10838.
   71. "FDA Handling of Research on NutraSweet is Defended," _New York Times_, 
July 18, 1987, p. 50
   72. H.J. Roberts, M.D.,*Aspartame (NutraSweet): Is it Safe?*, Charles Press 
(Philadelphia: 1990), p. 10.
   73. _Congressional Record_, August 1, 1985, p. S108-28.
   74. Ibid., p. S108-34.
   76. Graves.
   77. "Sweet Suspicions," three-part CBS Nightly News series, January 1984. 
Transcript reprinted in the _Congressional Record_, August 1, 1985, 
p. S108-26.
   78. Ibid.
   79. Raymond Bonner, "Searle Stock Query Held 'Smokescreen,"' _New York 
Times_, February 29, 1984, p. D5
   80. William Safire, "Sweet and Sour," _New York Times_, June 1, 1984, 
p. A31.
   81. Louis Wolf, "Accuracy in Media Rewrites the News and History," _Covert 
Action Information Bulletin_, Number 21  (Spring 1984), pp. 24-37.
   82. I.N. Love, "NutraSweet Isn't that 'Sweet,"' in _Gentle Strength Times_, 
October 1987, p.3.
   83. Graves.
   84. "Complaints on Aspartame Lead to Nationwide Investigation," _Los 
Angeles Times_, July 5, 1984, p. Hl.
   85. "Federal Agency Sees Little Risk in Sweetener," _New York Times_, 
November 2, 1984, p. A22.
   86. _Los Angeles Times_, July 5, 1984.
   87. _New York Times_, November 2, 1984.
   88 "U.S. Study of Aspartame Finds no Serious Effects," _Washington Post_, 
November 2, 1984, p. A18
   89. "Pepsi Switches Sweeteners," _Washington Post_, November 2, 1984, p. AI. 
   90. "Most Scientists in Poll Doubt NutraSweet's Safety," _Washington Post_, 
August 17, 1987, p. A23.
   91. Roberts, p. 238.
   92. _Congressional Report_, May 7, 1987, p. S5500.
   93. "New Findings Back Use of Sweetener," _New York Times_, August 1987, 
p. 30.
   94. "Researchers Differ Over Long Range Effects of Sweetener," _Los 
Angeles Times_, November 3, 1988, p. Hl.
   95. Roberts, p. 244.
   96. Roberts, p. 248.
   97. "High Court Rejects Sweetener Review," _Washington Post_, April 23, 
1986, p. C.
   98. Roberts,p. 246-47.

                           ABOUT PREVAILING WINDS

Since World War II, news-media reliance on government pronouncements has left 
millions of citizens baffled about recent history and current events.  The USA 
increasingly suffers from concentration of media ownership, homogenization of 
news content, and a dismaying conflation of news and entertainment.  Many
people simply do not trust what they read and hear.  This culture of mistrust 
promotes apathy, self-defeating cynicism, preposterous theories and 
supernatural beliefs.

A citizen's primary duty is to establish the truth, for truth is a necessary 
prerequisite to the establishment of justice.  Yet the first task now seems so 
daunting that the latter work often goes undone.  We at Prevailing Winds 
intend to make that task, if not easier, at least possible.  We intend to 
deepen public awareness of just what has happened to our country and our 
world over the past 50 years.  We will support the growing number of truly 
independent writers, journalists, thinkers, investigators and media 
personalities who want to inform the citizenry about this nation's true past
and future.  Accordingly, our mission at Prevailing Winds is to distribute, 
commission and publish works that probe beneath patriotic pieties, textbook 
orthodoxies and sensationalist headlines.

We intend to establish the Deep Politics Research Center, where journalists, 
students, authors and the general public can access hard-to-find documents, 
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Fletcher Prouty and Mary Ferrell have entrusted us with their collections. We 
now seek financial support to copy, index and digitize these and other 
collections so that the Center can become a fully-functioning public archive.

Some books are too politically controversial to get published.  Thus, we have 
founded Open Archive Press to issue significant, scholarly works on the secret 
history of the last 50 years.  Our first publication was Crime and Coverup by 
scholar-diplomat Peter Dale Scott, Ph.D.

Years ago a new world order began to form, but most of us still don't know 
what it is.  Many of those who do know don't want us to find out.  Our 
long-term goal is to end this ignorance.  Reaching this goal will be a
difficult and exhilarating journey; please join us on it.

Here is how you can support this work and better inform yourself as well.

For a tax-deductible donation of:

$25 you will receive a subscription to Prevailing Winds Magazine (four
issues) and all other mailings.
$40 you will receive a subscription plus Jim Garrison's audio-taped lecture,  
The Rise of the Fourth Reich.
$80 you will receive a subscription, the Garrison audio-tape plus a video-tape 
of The Second Gun, the documentary classic that reveals the truth about the 
Robert Kennedy Assassination (nominated for best feature length documentary at 
the 1975 Golden Globe Awards).
$100 or more you will receive all of the premiums above, plus Crime and
Cover-Up by P. D. Scott.

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