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GMO-FREE PRODUCTS: Trader Joe’s, Aldi, Whole Foods opt out of genetically engineered salmon



                                  PART 1


------------------------------- GENET-news -------------------------------

TITLE:   TRADER JOE?S, ALDI, WHOLE FOODS OPT OUT OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED SEAFOOD

SOURCE:  Forbes, USA

AUTHOR:  Amy Westervelt

URL:     http://www.forbes.com/sites/amywestervelt/2013/03/20/trader-joes-aldi-whole-foods-opt-out-of-genetically-engineered-seafood/

DATE:    20.03.2013

SUMMARY: "The U.S. Food & Drug Administration is likely to approve the introduction of genetically engineered salmon (AquaAdvantage salmon)?the so-called ?frankenfish? that has been making headlines for a year or so?later this month. With federal regulation of genetically engineered fish looking unlikely, environment and consumer advocacy groups that oppose the introduction of genetically engineered fish or meat are trying a different tact: Encouraging supermarkets and restaurants to pledge not to buy the stuff. ?Consumers Union has serious concerns about the safety of the first genetically engineered fish, a salmon engineered to grow to maturity twice as fast as wild salmon,? Michael Hansen, PhD, senior scientist with Consumers Union, the advocacy arm of Consumer Reports, said."

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TRADER JOE?S, ALDI, WHOLE FOODS OPT OUT OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED SEAFOOD

The U.S. Food & Drug Administration is likely to approve the introduction of genetically engineered salmon (AquaAdvantage salmon)?the so-called ?frankenfish? that has been making headlines for a year or so?later this month. With federal regulation of genetically engineered fish looking unlikely, environment and consumer advocacy groups that oppose the introduction of genetically engineered fish or meat are trying a different tact: Encouraging supermarkets and restaurants to pledge not to buy the stuff.

?Consumers Union has serious concerns about the safety of the first genetically engineered fish, a salmon engineered to grow to maturity twice as fast as wild salmon,? Michael Hansen, PhD, senior scientist with Consumers Union, the advocacy arm of Consumer Reports, said. ?The FDA decided based on data from just six fish that there was no increased risk to people with fish allergies. However, even these meager data suggest that these fish show increased allergic potential.?

Proponents of genetically engineered proteins argue that there is plenty of research proving the safety of GE fish and meat. Aqua Bounty has been developing the AquaAdvantage salmon for 17 years and the Genetic Literacy Project claims the FDA had definitively concluded last spring that the fish would have ?no significant impact? on the environment and was ?as safe as food from conventional Atlantic salmon? in a draft assessment the group claims was suppressed by the government.

Irrespective of the FDA?s take on the matter, American consumers polled in 2010 nearly unanimously disapproved of genetically engineered fish or meat being introduced to the market. However, should the fish be approved by the FDA, it will not be required to be labeled genetically engineered, per existing labeling guidelines. That means consumers who choose to avoid genetically engineered fish may find it difficult to do so.

At least 35 other species of genetically engineered fish are currently under development, and the FDA?s decision on this genetically engineered salmon application will set a precedent for other genetically engineered fish and animals (including cows, chickens and pigs) to enter the global food market.

To avoid confusion in the marketplace and ensure sustainable seafood, a coalition of 30 groups led by Friends of the Earth ? including the Center for Food Safety, Food & Water Watch, Consumers Union, and Healthy Child Healthy World ? are asking grocery stores, seafood restaurants, chefs, and seafood companies to join the Pledge for GE-Free Seafood and publicly commit to not knowingly purchasing or selling genetically engineered salmon or other genetically engineered seafood.

Currently Trader Joe?s, Aldi, Whole Foods, Marsh Supermarkets, PCC Natural Markets, and several co-op markets have signed the Pledge, for a total of more than 2,000 stores.

?We have spoken to a number of other stores that expect to have non-GE fish policies over the coming months and we will work with them to promote those policies,? says Eric Hoffman, food & technology policy campaigner with Friends of the Earth. ?We plan on reaching out to restaurants in the next few weeks as the next step in our campaign, but we wanted to go public with a list of grocery stores first since this is where most consumers purchase their seafood directly.



                                  PART 2

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TITLE:   WHOLE FOODS, OTHERS TO SHUN GENETICALLY MODIFIED SEAFOOD

SOURCE:  Thomson Reuters, USA

AUTHOR:  Lisa Baertlein

URL:     http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/03/20/usa-fish-gmo-idUSL1N0CBGIS20130320

DATE:    20.03.2013

SUMMARY: "Whole Foods Market Inc, Trader Joe's and other food retailers representing more than 2,000 U.S. stores have vowed not to sell genetically engineered seafood if it is approved in the United States, a new advocacy group said on Wednesday. The announcement from the Campaign for Genetically Engineered-Free Seafood comes as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration appears close to approving genetically engineered salmon from Massachusetts-based AquaBounty Technologies."

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WHOLE FOODS, OTHERS TO SHUN GENETICALLY MODIFIED SEAFOOD

(Reuters) - Whole Foods Market Inc, Trader Joe's and other food retailers representing more than 2,000 U.S. stores have vowed not to sell genetically engineered seafood if it is approved in the United States, a new advocacy group said on Wednesday.

The announcement from the Campaign for Genetically Engineered-Free Seafood comes as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration appears close to approving genetically engineered salmon from Massachusetts-based AquaBounty Technologies.

If it gets final approval from the Food and Drug Administration, the salmon would be the first genetically engineered animal to enter this country's human food supply. The United States already is the world's largest market for foods made with genetically altered plant ingredients.

AquaBounty says its "AquAdvantage Salmon" can grow to market size in half the time of conventional salmon, saving time and resources. The fish is essentially Atlantic salmon with a Pacific salmon gene for faster growth and a gene from the eel-like ocean pout that promotes year-round growth.

Critics say such genetically modified products are not sufficiently tested for safety, carry allergy risks and should be labeled. Proponents disagree and say the products are safe.

Discount grocer Aldi, regional chains such as Marsh Supermarkets, PCC Natural Markets and co-ops in Minnesota, New York, California and Kansas also signed the commitment to avoid selling genetically-engineered fish.

"We won't sell genetically engineered fish because we don't believe it is sustainable or healthy," said Trudy Bialic from PCC Natural Markets in Washington State.

Many popular processed foods - including soy milk, soup and breakfast cereal - sold in the United States are made with soybeans, corn and other biotech crops whose genetic traits have been manipulated, often to make them resistant to insects and pesticides.

Whole Foods, a 335-store organic and natural food supermarket chain, earlier this month said it will require all products sold in its U.S. and Canadian stores to carry a label by 2018 saying whether they contain genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

At the same time, consumer groups are working at the state and federal level to require labels on products that contain GMOs.

Dozens of countries already have genetically modified food labeling requirements, with the European Union imposing mandatory labeling in 1997. Since then, genetically modified products and crops have virtually disappeared from many of those markets.



                                  PART 3

------------------------------- GENET-news -------------------------------

TITLE:   GROCERS WON?T SELL ALTERED FISH, GROUPS SAY

SOURCE:  The New York Times, USA

AUTHOR:  Andrew Pollack

URL:     http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/20/business/grocery-chains-pledge-not-to-sell-modified-salmon.html?_r=1&;

DATE:    20.03.2013

SUMMARY: "The supermarkets ? including Whole Foods Market, Trader Joe?s and Aldi ?stated their policies in response to a campaign by consumer and environmental groups opposed to the fish. The groups are expected to announce the chains? policies on Wednesday. The supermarket chains have 2,000 stores in all, with 1,200 of them belonging to Aldi, which has outlets stretching from Kansas and Texas to the East Coast. ?Our current definition of sustainable seafood specifies the exclusion of genetically modified organisms,? a spokeswoman for Aldi said in a statement that also said the policy might evolve over time."

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GROCERS WON?T SELL ALTERED FISH, GROUPS SAY

Several supermarket chains have pledged not to sell what could become the first genetically modified animal to reach the nation?s dinner plates ? a salmon engineered to grow about twice as fast as normal.

The supermarkets ? including Whole Foods Market, Trader Joe?s and Aldi ?stated their policies in response to a campaign by consumer and environmental groups opposed to the fish. The groups are expected to announce the chains? policies on Wednesday. The supermarket chains have 2,000 stores in all, with 1,200 of them belonging to Aldi, which has outlets stretching from Kansas and Texas to the East Coast.

?Our current definition of sustainable seafood specifies the exclusion of genetically modified organisms,? a spokeswoman for Aldi said in a statement that also said the policy might evolve over time. She said the company would not comment further.

The salmon is now awaiting approval from the Food and Drug Administration, which in December concluded that the fish would have ?no significant impact? on the environment and would be as safe to eat as conventional salmon. The agency is accepting public comments on its findings until April 26.

Under existing F.D.A. policies, the salmon, if approved, would probably not be labeled as genetically engineered. The agency has said that use of genetic engineering per se does not change a food materially.

The campaign by the environmental and consumer groups suggests that the salmon could have trouble winning acceptance in the market, assuming consumers could actually identify it.

?Consumers do not want to eat genetically engineered fish, and stores are starting to pick up on it,? said Eric Hoffman, food and technology policy campaigner for Friends of the Earth, one of the 30 organizations that sent letters to retailers asking them to promise not to carry the salmon. Other organizations involved include the Center for Food Safety and Consumers Union.

Still, the 2,000 stores covered by the pledges so far represent only a small fraction of the estimated 36,500 supermarkets in the United States, and some already had policies against genetically engineered seafood. Whole Foods, which recently announced that all genetically engineered food sold in its stores would have to be labeled by 2018, caters to consumers more likely than most to pay higher prices to avoid genetically modified ingredients.

Mr. Hoffman said he was confident that other grocers, including some more mainstream ones, would sign on. ?We haven?t heard any solid noes from anyone,? he said.

Ronald L. Stotish, chief executive of AquaBounty Technologies, which developed the salmon, said of the pledges: ?I would be disappointed, but it?s their right. No one will ever be forced to purchase our products.?

But he added, ?We think we have a safe and healthy product that we hope will be given a chance to be fairly judged by consumers.?

The fish, the AquAdvantage salmon, is a farmed Atlantic salmon that contains a growth hormone gene from the chinook salmon and a genetic switch from the ocean pout that keeps the transplanted gene continuously active. The salmon can grow to market weight in as little as half the time required by other farmed Atlantic salmon, AquaBounty says.

Critics say that the fish has not been tested adequately for safety and that it might outcompete wild salmon for food or mates should it ever escape. AquaBounty says its fish are sterilized and would be grown in inland tanks, with little chance of escape.

The groups against the fish say that Marsh Supermarkets, with about 90 stores in Ohio and Indiana, and PCC Natural Markets, with nine stores in Washington State, had also agreed not to carry the genetically modified salmon. Marsh did not return calls seeking verification.

AquaBounty, which is based in Maynard, Mass., has been close to running out of money. Last Friday, shareholders approved the sale of new shares worth $6 million, which the company has said would be enough to keep it afloat for at least another year.

Most of the new shares are being acquired by the Intrexon Corporation, bringing its stake in AquaBounty to 53.8 percent. Intrexon specializes in synthetic biology, an advanced form of genetic engineering, and is controlled by Randal J. Kirk, a biotechnology entrepreneur.



                                  PART 4

------------------------------- GENET-news -------------------------------

TITLE:   DEBATE OVER GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD GROWS TO INCLUDE SALMON

SOURCE:  Chicago Tribune, USA

AUTHOR:  Emily Bryson York

URL:     http://www.chicagotribune.com/business/ct-biz-0320-ge-salmon-20130320,0,6297071.story

DATE:    20.03.2013

SUMMARY: "The debate over genetically modified products appears to be moving up the food chain. A grass-roots organization known as Friends of the Earth has partnered with Batavia-based Aldi and four other grocery chains that have pledged not to sell genetically engineered salmon, a product being reviewed by the Food and Drug Administration. The group noted that Whole Foods Market, Trader Joe?s, Marsh Supermarkets and PCC Natural Markets are part of what it called the ?Campaign for Genetically Engineered-Free Seafood,? the group said."

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DEBATE OVER GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD GROWS TO INCLUDE SALMON

Aldi, Whole Foods among stores pledging not to sell engineered fish

The debate over genetically modified products appears to be moving up the food chain.

A grass-roots organization known as Friends of the Earth has partnered with Batavia-based Aldi and four other grocery chains that have pledged not to sell genetically engineered salmon, a product being reviewed by the Food and Drug Administration.

The group noted that Whole Foods Market, Trader Joe?s, Marsh Supermarkets and PCC Natural Markets are part of what it called the ?Campaign for Genetically Engineered-Free Seafood,? the group said.

An Aldi spokeswoman said in a statement that its approach to genetically modified food is guided by consumer preferences, science-based data and recommendations from partners. ?Our current definition of sustainable seafood specifies the exclusion of genetically modified organisms for all farmed seafood.?

She added that the chain expects its ?seafood buying policy to evolve over time.?

An FDA spokeswoman said Tuesday the agency will review comments and take several steps before making a decision. She said it?s not known when the agency could make a decision about genetically engineered salmon.

According to the agency?s website, genetically engineered animals were first developed in the 1980s and are still in early development. Genetic engineering refers to the introductions of new traits into an organism.

Last month, the FDA extended the comment period to late April for AquAdvantage Salmon, a product made by AquaBounty Technologies, a Maynard, Mass.-based biotechnology firm. According to the FDA website, the products are described as ?Atlantic salmon that have been genetically engineered? to reach ?market size,? between 5 and 12 pounds, faster than other farmed salmon. It?s not yet being sold.

AquaBounty declined to comment for this story.

Whatever the FDA?s decision on genetically engineered fish, consumer interest in genetic modification seems to be increasing. Genetically modified corn, for example, has been a hot-button issue for some consumers.

?It?s becoming a national conversation,? Whole Foods spokeswoman Kate Lowery said.

The Austin, Texas-based grocer said this month that it would begin labeling certified non-GMO products on its shelves and that by 2018, it would label any product in its stores that contains any genetically modified ingredient.

Friends of the Earth bills itself as an international environmental organization with 2 million members.

?We applaud these retailers for listening to the vast majority of their customers who want sustainable, natural seafood for their families,? Eric Hoffman, food and technology policy campaigner for Friends of the Earth, said in a statement. He called on other retailers to make similar commitments.



                                  PART 5

------------------------------- GENET-news -------------------------------

TITLE:   MAJOR US SUPERMARKETS TO BOYCOTT GM SALMON

SOURCE:  The Guardian, UK

AUTHOR:  Suzanne Goldenberg

URL:     http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2013/mar/20/major-us-supermarkets-boycott-gm-salmon

DATE:    20.03.2013

SUMMARY: "A number of US supermarket chains pledged on Wednesday not to sell genetically modified salmon, in a sign of growing public concern about engineered foods on the dinner table. The US Food and Drug Administration is in the final stages of deciding whether to allow GM salmon on to the market. If approved, AquaBounty Technology?s salmon would be the first genetically engineered animal to enter the food supply."

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MAJOR US SUPERMARKETS TO BOYCOTT GM SALMON

- Aldi and Whole Foods among retailers refusing to sell product

- FDA decision due on whether GM salmon allowed onto market

A number of US supermarket chains pledged on Wednesday not to sell genetically modified salmon, in a sign of growing public concern about engineered foods on the dinner table.

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is in the final stages of deciding whether to allow GM salmon on to the market. If approved, AquaBounty Technology?s salmon would be the first genetically engineered animal to enter the food supply.

The company combined genes from two species of salmon with a pouter eel to produce a fish it says it can bring to market twice as fast as conventional salmon.

The GM salmon is the first in some 30 other species of genetically engineered fish under development, including tilapia. Researchers are also working to bring GM cows, chickens and pigs to market.

However, those plans could be blocked by Wednesday?s commitment not to sell genetically engineered seafood from national grocery chainsincluding Trader Joe?s, Aldi and Whole Foods, as well as regional retailers.

Between them, the chains control about 2,000 outlets ? a fraction of supermarkets across the country. But campaigners said they represent a growing segment of the population that is concerned about GM food, and willing to pay higher prices for healthier foods.

Eric Hoffman, a campaigner for Friends of the Earth, said in a statement: ?Now it?s time for other food retailers, including Walmart, Costco and Safeway, to follow suit and let their customers know they will not be selling unlabelled, poorly studied genetically engineered seafood.?

Trudy Bialic from PCC Natural Markets, a chain of health food stores in Washington state, said: ?We won?t sell genetically engineered fish because we don?t believe it is sustainable or healthy.?

There was no immediate response from AquaBounty, a struggling biotechnology firm which has spent nearly 20 years trying to bring the fish to market. The company has hit a number of financial crisis points over the past few years, relying on research grants and investors to stay in operation.

Last year the company turned to a former Soviet oligarch, Georgian billionaire and former economics minister Kakha Bendukidze, for a bailout.

As the FDA review process enters its final stages, campaign groups have are pushing retailers not to stock the product and tapping into growing awareness in America about GM foods.

Voters in California and other states have been pushing for labels on GM foods. Meanwhile, the Whole Foods chain announced earlier this month it would begin labelling foods containing GM corn and soybean by 2018.

Critics of GM salmon say the FDA has not conducted proper oversight of the fish, which are raised from eggs hatched in a facility in Prince Edward Island, Canada, and grown to maturity in tanks in a remote area of Panama, to ensure they can not escape into the wild.

They say there is insufficient data to back up AquaBounty?s claims its salmon can grow to maturity twice as fast as wild salmon. They also dispute the company?s claims that there is no increased risk to people with allergies.

Those concerns were amplified by the FDA?s preliminary finding that there was no need to label GM salmon.

Patty Lovera of the campaign group Food and Water Watch said it was not clear what effect the supermarkets? move would have on the FDA?s decision, which is supposed to be focused on science.

But she said she hoped the growing public opposition to GM salmon ? even before its approval ? would push retailers to think twice about stocking the fish or more than 30 other varieties of GM seafood currently under development.

?It reinforces that there is no demand or no need for this product, so why does the FDA need to approve it?? she said. ?If this many stores are willing to say ?no? ahead of time, I think that is a pretty strong signal that there is not a lot of demand.?



                                  PART 6

------------------------------- GENET-news -------------------------------

TITLE:   TOP GROCERY STORES: WE WON?T SELL GENETICALLY ENGINEERED SEAFOOD

SOURCE:  Friends of the Earth, USA

AUTHOR:  Press Release, by Lisa Matthes

URL:     http://www.foe.org/news/news-releases/2013-03-top-grocery-stores-wont-sell-genetically-engineered-seafood

DATE:    20.03.2013

SUMMARY: "A coalition of consumer, health, food safety and fishing groups today launched the ?Campaign for Genetically Engineered (GE)-Free Seafood? by announcing that several major grocery retailers representing more than 2,000 stores across the United States have already committed not to sell genetically engineered seafood if it is allowed onto the market. The growing market rejection of GE fish comes as the FDA conducts its final review of a genetically engineered salmon. If approved, the salmon would be the first-ever genetically engineered animal allowed to enter the human food supply."

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TOP GROCERY STORES: WE WON?T SELL GENETICALLY ENGINEERED SEAFOOD

Trader Joe?s, Aldi, Whole Foods, Marsh among stores that will reject GE fish

WASHINGTON, D.C. -- A coalition of consumer, health, food safety and fishing groups today launched the ?Campaign for Genetically Engineered (GE)-Free Seafood? by announcing that several major grocery retailers representing more than 2,000 stores across the United States have already committed not to sell genetically engineered seafood if it is allowed onto the market. 

The growing market rejection of GE fish comes as the FDA conducts its final review of a genetically engineered salmon. If approved, the salmon would be the first-ever genetically engineered animal allowed to enter the human food supply.

Stores that have committed to not offer the salmon or other genetically engineered seafood include the national retailers Trader Joe?s (367 stores), Aldi (1,230 stores), Whole Foods (325 stores in US); regional chains such as Marsh Supermarkets (93 stores in Indiana and Ohio), PCC Natural Markets (9 stores in Washington State); and co-ops in Minnesota, New York, California and Kansas. 

?We applaud these retailers for listening to the vast majority of their customers who want sustainable, natural seafood for their families. Now it?s time for other food retailers, including Walmart, Costco and Safeway, to follow suit and let their customers know they will not be selling unlabeled, poorly studied genetically engineered seafood,? said Eric Hoffman, food & technology policy campaigner with Friends of the Earth.

?Consumers Union has serious concerns about the safety of the first genetically engineered fish, a salmon engineered to grow to maturity twice as fast as wild salmon. FDA decided based on data from just six fish that there was no increased risk to people with fish allergies. However, even these meager data suggest that these fish show increased allergic potential,? says Michael Hansen, PhD, senior scientist with Consumers Union, the advocacy arm of Consumer Reports.

Consumer opposition to genetically engineered animals is strong. The majority of Americans say they won?t eat genetically engineered seafood, and 91 percent of Americans say the FDA should not allow it onto the market (Lake Research poll). (1) Eighty percent of Americans who regularly eat fish say that sustainable practices are ?important? or ?very important? to them, according to a 2013 NPR poll. (2)

?We won?t sell genetically engineered fish because we don?t believe it is sustainable or healthy. It is troubling that the FDA is recommending approval of AquaBounty?s salmon as a ?new animal drug,? subjecting these engineered creatures to less rigorous safety standards than food additives. That?s not a credible safety assessment,? said Trudy Bialic from PCC Natural Markets in Washington State.

?Simply put, this genetically engineered fish is unnecessary and is a problem masquerading as a solution,? said Heather Whitehead, online campaigns director at Center for Food Safety. ?We?re excited to see that grocery retailers agree that there is no need to introduce an unnecessary, unpopular and risky new technology to the marketplace without adequate assessment, posing risks to human health, the environment, wild salmon, and the sustainable fishing industry.?

The FDA has stated it will likely not label genetically engineered salmon, providing consumers no way of knowing if the fish they are feeding their families is genetically engineered. At least 35 other species of genetically engineered fish are currently under development, and the FDA?s decision on this genetically engineered salmon application will set a precedent for other genetically engineered fish and animals (including cows, chickens and pigs) to enter the global food market. (3)

To avoid confusion in the marketplace and ensure sustainable seafood, a coalition of 30 groups led by Friends of the Earth -- including the Center for Food Safety, Food & Water Watch, Consumers Union and Healthy Child Healthy World -- are asking grocery stores, seafood restaurants, chefs, and seafood companies to join the Pledge for GE-Free Seafood and publicly commit to not knowingly purchase or sell genetically engineered salmon or other genetically engineered seafood. The Pledge for GE-Free Seafood is another way for grocery stores to let their customers know about their purchasing policies.

http://www.foe.org/gefreeseafood

?Parents are busy enough without having to worry if they?re feeding their kids genetically engineered seafood. That?s why we?re excited about the Pledge for GE-Free Seafood,? said Alexandra Zissu, editorial director of Healthy Child Healthy World, a family advocacy group. ?Since the FDA will likely not label genetically engineered fish, this pledge will help parents -- and all of us -- know where we can safely shop to avoid eating the unknown. Then the focus can return to family meal fun, not risk management.?

?Most consumers don?t want to eat genetically engineered salmon, but without mandatory labeling it will be hard for them to avoid. That?s why the stores who have committed to not to sell genetically engineered seafood are making a smart move and giving their customers what they want -- a way to avoid this controversial, unnecessary biotech fish,? said Patty Lovera, assistant director of Food & Water Watch.

NOTE: Stores named in this release as having a GE-free fish policy have communicated their policies to not source or sell genetically engineered seafood in at least one of the following ways: by signing and returning the Pledge for GE-Free Seafood, direct email communication with Friends of the Earth, or through public statements or public corporate policies.

More on the health and environmental risks of genetically engineered salmon.

http://libcloud.s3.amazonaws.com/93/16/8/2826/Issue_brief_Genetically_engineered_fish.pdf

More information on the Pledge for GE-Free Seafood, including a directory of stores committed to not knowingly sourcing or selling genetically engineered seafood, can be found online at www.gefreeseafood.org.

Grocery stores, restaurants and chefs can add their name to the Pledge for GE-Free Seafood by emailing gefreeseafood@foe.org.

The letter sent to retailers asking them to make this commitment was signed by 30 consumer, food safety, fishing, environmental, sustainable agriculture, parent, public health and animal health and welfare organizations, representing millions of supporters, can be found here.

http://libcloud.s3.amazonaws.com/93/ee/9/2819/CEO_letter_for_pledge_to_GE-free_seafood.pdf

Notes:

(1) Lake Research Partners, Commissioned by Food and Water Watch, 9/20/10. ?Americans in near unanimity on their disapproval of genetically engineered fish and meat in the marketplace.? http://www.saynotogmos.org/ud2010/docs/fish_survey.pdf

(2) Barclay, Eliza. ?Most Americans Eager To Buy Seafood That?s ?Sustainable.?? National Public Radio, 12 Feb. 2013. http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2013/02/11/171743185/most-americans-eager-to-buy-seafood-thats-sustainable

(3) Genetically Engineered Fish. Center for Food Safety, Jan. 2013. http://www.centerforfoodsafety.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/ge-salmon-fact-sheet.pdf