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ANIMALS: Pig to human transplantation getting closer




                                  PART 1


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TITLE:  PIG TO HUMAN TRANSPLANTATION GETTING CLOSER

SOURCE: Newswise, USA

AUTHOR: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, USA

URL:    http://www.newswise.com/articles/view/531732/

DATE:   19.07.2007

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PIG TO HUMAN TRANSPLANTATION GETTING CLOSER

Newswise — Experiments using pigs genetically engineered for compatibility with the human immune system have raised hopes that cross-species transplantation could soon become an option for patients with diabetes and other currently incurable diseases. However, many scientific hurdles remain before the ultimate goal of inducing long-term tolerance of animal tissues and organs in human recipients, according to a special paper in the July 15 issue of the journal Transplantation, published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a part of Wolters Kluwer Health.

”The potential benefits of successful xenotransplantation to large numbers of patients with very differing clinical conditions remain immense, fully warranting the current efforts being made to work towards its clinical introduction,” concludes the article. The lead author is Dr. David Cooper of Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.

Dr. Cooper and colleagues review progress to date with a strain of pigs genetically engineered in the hope of addressing chronic shortages of organs and tissues for transplantation. The animals lack the gene responsible for ”alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase” (GT)—an enzyme normally present in the pig vascular system. Humans have natural, preformed antibodies to GT, resulting in immediate (acute) rejection of any pig-to-human transplant.

The fact that these genetically engineered ”GT-knockout” pigs lack GT removes one obstacle to cross-species transplantation, or xenotransplantation, between pigs and humans. Apart from the possible transplantation of organs such as the kidney or heart, pigs are also viewed as a potentially invaluable source of islet cells—the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas—for use in transplantation as a treatment for type 1 diabetes.

Preliminary studies have reported encouraging results with transplantation of organs from GT-KO pigs into nonhuman primates. Hearts transplanted from GT-KO pigs into baboons have survived for several months, without the need for intensive drug treatment to suppress the recipient animal’s immune system.

However, many obstacles remain to be overcome before exploratory studies of xenotransplantation from GT-KO pigs to humans can begin. The transplanted hearts do not show the pattern of acute, overwhelming rejection typical of cross-species transplantation. However, there is evidence of another type of rejection, characterized by blood clots developing in the small blood vessels.

This suggests a possible ”coagulation dysregulation” between pigs and primates. New approaches will be needed to address the problem: either improved approaches to immunosuppressant drug therapy or further genetic manipulation of the donor animals. Studies may also explore techniques of inducing immune tolerance between the animal donor and human recipient before the transplantation procedure is done—an approach that is not generally possible in human-to-human transplantation.

The development of GT-KO pigs has been a significant advance toward making xenotransplantation a reality. However, ”these organ-source pigs have not proved the ’quantum leap’ that had been hoped, and there are clearly other immunologic problems that require resolution before a clinical trial can be initiated,” according to Dr. Cooper and colleagues. More research is needed to identify the nature of the human antibodies to GT, and perhaps to further modify the GT-KO pigs to overcome the observed blood clotting problems.

”Advances in these areas might allow the initiation of clinical trials of xenotransplantation, at least for cell or islet transplantation or for the use of a pig organ to ’bridge’ a patient until a human organ is obtained,” Dr. Cooper and coauthors write. They conclude, ”The potential benefits of successful xenotransplantation to large numbers of patients with very differing clinical conditions remain immense, fully warranting the current efforts being made to work towards its clinical introduction.”

 

About Transplantation: The Official Journal of The Transplantation Society?The most cited and influential journal in the field (with over 20,000 citations a year), Transplantation (http://www.transplantjournal.com), a Lippincott Williams & Wilkins journal, is published twice monthly and provides extensive coverage of the most important advances in transplantation. Consistently ranked among the top journals in transplantation, surgery and immunology, the journal covers areas including cell therapy and islet transplantation, clinical transplantation, experimental transplantation, immunobiology and genomics, and xenotransplantation.

About Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ?Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (http://LWW.com) is a leading international publisher for healthcare professionals and students with nearly 300 periodicals and 1,500 books in more than 100 disciplines publishing under the LWW brand, as well as content-based sites and online corporate and customer services. LWW is part of Wolters Kluwer Health, a leading provider of information for professionals and students in medicine, nursing, allied health, pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. Wolters Kluwer Health is a division of Wolters Kluwer, a leading global information services and publishing company with annual revenues (2006) of €3.7 billion and approximately 19,900 employees worldwide. Visit WoltersKluwer.com.



                                  PART 2

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TITLE:  NTU DEVELOPS ENVIRONMENTALLY-FRIENDLY PIGS

SOURCE: Taiwan Headlines, Taiwan

AUTHOR: Central News Agency, Taiwan, by Deborah Kuo

URL:    http://www.taiwanheadlines.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=80723&CtNode=10

DATE:   12.07.2007

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NTU DEVELOPS ENVIRONMENTALLY-FRIENDLY PIGS

Taipei, July 12 (CNA) Researchers from National Taiwan University have successfully developed transgenic pigs that are herbivorous, and produce odorless and pollutant-free manure, an academic said Thursday.

More than 30 ”environmentally-friendly” pigs and piglets, which have more efficient digestive tracts, have been produced via genetic engineering by an NTU research team led by Prof. Winston T.K. Cheng.

The NTU transgenic pigs have the ability to secrete large amounts of phytase and cellulase -- two enzymes that could significantly improve pigs’ digestion.

With higher amount of phytase and cellulase compounds in their digestive systems, the transgenic pigs could become totally herbivorous, so their feed could entirely consist of plants and vegetables.

A ”vegetarian” pig would release manure that would contain less pulp and nearly no indigestible phosphorus -- meaning less pollutants and no odor -- tremendously contributing to environmental protection efforts, said Cheng, who is internationally renowned as the world’s first scientist to produce test-tube pigs and sheep.

Cheng produced test-tube pigs and sheep 24 years ago when he was studying at Cambridge University.

Currently, the NTU research team is providing differing diets to those 30-odd pigs and piglets, in an attempt to learn how the animals’ manure would vary in pulp and phosphorus contents depending on the amounts of soybean and corn in their feed, according to Cheng.


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