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2-Plants: GM soybean: Latin America's new colonizer



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TITLE:  GM soybean: Latin America's new colonizer
SOURCE: Seedling, GRAIN, by Miguel Altieri and Walter Pengue
        http://www.grain.org/seedling/?id=421 
DATE:   Jan 2006

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GM soybean: Latin America's new colonizer

In Latin America, the frontiers to soybean production are being pushed
back aggressively in all directions at a breathtaking rate. Driven by
export pressures and supported by government incentives, soybean fields
are taking over forests and savannah in an unprecedented manner. The
implications of the monoculture model and its supporting machinery for
the environment, farmers and communities are discussed below.

In 2005, the biotech industry and its allies celebrated the tenth
consecutive year of expansion of genetically modified (GM) crops. The
estimated global area of approved GM crops was 90 million hectares, a
growth of 11% over the previous year (see map on p14). In 21 countries,
they claim, GM crops have met the expectations of millions of large and
small farmers in both industrialised and developing countries; delivering
benefits to consumers and society at large through more affordable food,
feed and fiber that are more environmentally sustainable. [1]

It is hard to imagine how such expansion in GM crops has met the needs of
small farmers or consumers when 60% of the global area of GM crops is
devoted to herbicide-tolerant crops. In developing countries, GM crops
are mostly grown for export by big farmers, not for local consumption.
They are used as animal feed to produce meat consumed mostly by the wealthy.

The Latin America countries growing soybean include Argentina, Brazil,
Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. The expansion of soybean production is
driven by prices, government and agro-industrial support, and demand from
importing countries, especially China, which is the world's largest
importer of soybean and soybean products. Brazil and Argentina
experienced the biggest growth rates in GM soybean expansion in 2005. [2]
The expansion is accompanied by massive transportation infrastructure
projects that destroy natural habitats over wide areas, well beyond the
deforestation directly caused by soybean cultivation. In Brazil, soybean
profits justified the improvement or construction of eight industrial
waterways, three railway lines and an extensive network of roads to bring
inputs and take away produce. These have attracted private investment in
logging, mining, ranching and other practices that severely impact on
biodiversity that have not been included in any impact assessment studies. [3]

In Argentina, the agro-industry for transforming soybean into oils and
pellets is concentrated in the Rosario region on the Parana river. This
area has become the largest soy-processing estate in the world, with all
the infrastructure and the environmental impact that entails. Spurred on
by the export market, the Argentinean government plans further expansion
of the soybean industry, adding another 4 million hectares to the
existing 14 million hectares of soy production by 2010. [4]


Soybean deforestation

The area of land in soybean production in Brazil has grown on average at
3.2% or 320,000 hectares per year since 1995, resulting in a total
increase of 2.3 million hectares. Today soybean occupies the largest area
of any crop, covering 21% of the cultivated land. The area has increased
by a factor of 57 since 1961, and production volume by a factor of 138.
In Paraguay, soybeans occupy more than 25% of all agricultural land. All
this expansion is at the expense of forests and other habitats. In
Argentina, where 5.6 million hectares of non-agricultural land has been
converted to soya production in less than ten years, forest conversion
rates are three to six times the global average. In Paraguay, much of the
Atlantic forest has been cut. [5] In Brazil, the cerrado (woodland-
savanna) and the grasslands are rapidly falling victim to the plow.


Forcing small farmers out

Biotech promoters always claim the expansion of soybean cultivation as a
measure of the successful adoption of the transgenic technology by
farmers. But these data conceal the fact that soybean expansion leads to
extreme land and income concentration. In Brazil, soybean cultivation
displaces 11 agricultural workers for every one who finds employment in
the sector. This is not a new phenomenon. In the 1970s, 2.5 million
people were displaced by soybean production in Parana, and 0.3 million in
Rio Grande do Sul. Many of these now landless people moved to the Amazon
where they cleared pristine forests. In the cerrado region, where
transgenic soybean is expanding, there is relatively low displacement
because the area is not widely populated. [6]

In Argentina, the situation is quite dramatic. Some 60,000 farms went out
of business while the area of Roundup Ready soybean almost tripled.
Between 1998 and 2002, one quarter of farms in the country were lost. In
one decade, soybean area increased 126% at the expense of dairy, maize,
wheat and fruit production. In the 2003/2004 growing season, 13.7 million
hectares of soybean were planted but there was a reduction of 2.9 million
hectares in maize and 2.15 million hectares in sunflowers. [7]  For the
biotech industry, huge increases in the soybean area cultivated and more
than a doubling of yields per unit area are an economic and agronomic
success. For the country, that means more imports of basic foods at teh
expense of food sovereignty, and for poor small farmers and consumers,
increased food prices and more hunger. [8]

Soybean expansion in Latin America is also related to biopolitics and the
power of multinationals. Millions of hectares of Roundup Ready soybean
were planted in Brazil during 2002 and 2003, despite a moratorium on GM
crops being in effect. Through their political influence, multinationals
have managed to expand dramatically the cultivation of transgenic crops
in developing countries. During the early years of GM soybean production
in Argentina, Monsanto did not, and said they would not, charge farmers
royalties to use the technology. But now that farmers are hooked, the
multinational is pressuring farmers, via the government, for payment of
intellectual property rights, despite the fact that Argentina signed UPOV
78, which allows farmers to save seeds for their own use. Paraguayan
farmers have also recently signed an agreement with Monsanto to pay the
company $2 per tonne.


Soybean cultivation degrades the soil

Soybean cultivation has always led to erosion, especially in areas where
it is not part of a long rotation. Soil loss has reached an average rate
of 16 tonnes per hectare per year (t/ha/y) in the US Midwest, far greater
than is sustainable; and soil loss levels in Brazil and Argentina are
estimated at between 19-30 t/ha/y depending on management, slope and
climate. Farmers wrongly believe that no-till systems mean no erosion.
No-till agriculture can reduce soil loss, but with the advent of
herbicide tolerant soybean, many farmers now cultivate in highly erodible
lands.  Research shows that despite improved soil cover, erosion and
negative changes in soil structure can still be substantial in highly
erodible lands if weed cover is reduced.

Large-scale soybean monocultures have rendered Amazonian soils unusable.
In areas of poor soils, fertilisers and lime have to be applied heavily
within two years. In Bolivia, soybean production is expanding towards the
east, and in many areas soils are already compacted and suffering severe
soil degradation. One hundred thousand hectares of soybean-exhausted
soils were abandoned for cattle-grazing, which in turn further degrades
the land. As land is abandoned, farmers move to other areas where they
again plant soybeans and repeat the vicious cycle of soil degradation.

In Argentina, intensive soybean cultivation has led to massive soil
nutrient depletion. Continuous soybean production has extracted an
estimated 1 million tonnes of nitrogen and about 227,000 tonnes of
phosphorous. The estimated cost of replenishing this nutrient loss via
fertilisers is US$ 910 million. [9]  The increased levels of nitrogen and
phosphorus found in several river basins of Latin America is certainly
linked to the increase of soybean production.

A key technical factor in the rapid spread of soybean production in
Brazil was the claim that soybean's symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-
fixing rhizobium bacteria in the plant's root nodules meant that the crop
could be grown without fertilisers. What the companies failed to tell
farmers was that the glyphosate herbicide packaged with the GM seeds is
directly toxic to the bacteria, rendering the soybeans dependent on
chemical fertilisers for nitrogen. Moreover, the common practice of
converting uncultivated pasture to soybeans results in an overall
reduction in the levels of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, again making soybean
dependent on synthetic nitrogen.


Monocultures and ecological vulnerability

The link between biodiversity reduction caused by the monoculture
expansion and increased insect pest outbreaks and disease epidemics is
well established. In poor and genetically homogenous landscapes insects
and pathogens find ideal conditions to thrive. This leads to the
increased use of pesticides, which after a while are no longer effective
due to the development of pest-resistance or ecological upsets typical of
the pesticide treadmill. Pesticides also cause major problems of soil and
water pollution, elimination of biodiversity and human poisoning. The
humid and warm conditions of the Amazon are also favourable for fungal
growth, resulting in the increased used of fungicides. In Brazil, the
soybean crop is increasingly being affected by stem canker and sudden
death syndrome.

Soybean rust is a new fungal disease increasingly affecting soybeans in
South America, which is increasing fungicide applications. In addition,
since 1992, more than 2 million hectares have been infected by cyst
nematodes. Many of these pest problems are linked to the genetic
uniformity and increased vulnerability of soybean monocultures, and also
to the direct effects of Roundup on the soil ecology, through the
depression of mycorrhizal [10] fungal populations and the elimination of
antagonists that keep many soil-borne pathogens under control. [11]

A quarter of all pesticides applied in Brazil are used on soybean, which
amounted to 50,000 tonnes in 2002. Pesticide use is increasing at a rate
of 22% per year. While biotech promoters claim that one application of
Roundup is all that is needed for whole season weed control, studies show
that in areas of transgenic soybean, the total amount and number of
herbicide applications have incr-eased. In the USA, the use of glyphosate
rose from 6.3 million pounds in 1995 to 41.8 million pounds in 2000. In
Argentina, Roundup applications reached an estimated 160 million litre
equivalents in the 2004 growing-season. Herbicide usage is expected to
increase as weeds develop resistance to Roundup.

Yields of transgenic soybean average 2.3 to 2.6 t/ha in the region, about
6% less than conventional varieties, and are especially low under drought
conditions. Due to pleiotropic effects (stems splitting under high
temperatures and water stress), transgenic soybean suffer 25% higher
losses than conventional soybean. Some 72% of the yields of transgenic
soybeans were lost in the 2004/2005 drought in Rio Grande do Sul, which
is expected to translate into a 95% drop in exports with dramatic
economic consequences. Most farmers have already defaulted on one third
of government loans.


Other ecological impacts

By creating crops resistant to its herbicides, a biotech company can
expand the market for its patented chemicals. The market value of
herbicide-tolerant crops increased 10-fold between 1995 and 2000, from
$75 to $805 million. In 2002, herbicide-tolerant soybean occupied 36.5
million hectares around the world, making it by far the number one GM
crop in terms of area. [12]  Global herbicide sales (especially
glyphosate) continue to increase. The continuous use of herbicides, and
especially the use of glyphosate with herbicide-tolerant crops, can lead
to serious ecological problems. When a single herbicide is used
repeatedly on a crop, the chances of herbicide-resistance developing in
weed populations greatly increases. About 216 cases of pesticide
resistance have been reported in one or more herbicide chemical families. [13]

Given industry pressures to increase herbicide sales, the acreage treated
with broad-spectrum herbicides will expand, exacerbating the resis-tance
problem. Weed resistance has already been documented with Australian
populations of annual ryegrass, quackgrass, birdsfoot trefoil, Cirsium
arvense, and Eleusine indica. [14]  In the Argentinian pampas, eight
species of weeds, among them two species of Verbena and one species of
Ipomoea, already exhibit resistance to glyphosate. [15]

Herbicide resistance becomes more of a problem as weeds are exposed to
fewer and fewer herbicides. Transgenic soybean reinforces this trend on
account of market forces. In fact, weed populations can even adapt to
tolerate or "avoid" certain herbicides. In the US state of Iowa,
populations of common waterhemp have demonstrated delayed germination,
which allows them to avoid planned glyphosate applications. The GM crop
itself may also assume 'vounteer' weed status. In Canada, volunteer
canola resistant to three herbicides (glyphosate, imidazolinone, and
glufosinolate) has been detected.  Farmers have to resort to the highly
toxic 2,4-D to control the volunteer canola. In northern Argentina, there
are several "superweeds" than demonstrate this kind of "stacked' or
"multiple" resistance to glyphosate.

Biotech companies claim that when properly applied, herbicides should not
pose a threat to humans or the environment. But in practice, the large-
scale planting of GM crops encourages the aerial application of
herbicides and much of what is sprayed is wasted through drift and
leaching. The companies contend that glyphosate degrades rapidly in the
soil, does not accumulate in ground water, has no effect on non-target
organisms, and leaves no residue in food, water or soil. Yet glyphosate
has been reported to be toxic to some non-target species in the soil -
both to beneficial predators such as spiders, mites, and carabid and
coccinellid beetles, and to detritivores such as earthworms, including
microfauna as well as to aquatic organisms, including fish.

Glyphosate is a systemic herbicide (which means it is absorbed into and
moves through the whole plant), so it is carried into the harvested parts
of plants. Exactly how much glyphosate is present in the seeds of
herbicide-tolerant corn or soybeans is not known, as grain products are
not included in conventional market surveys for pesticide residues. The
fact that this and other herbicides are known to accumulate in fruits and
tubers raises questions about food safety, especially now that more than
100 million pounds of this herbicide are used annually in the US alone.
[16]  Even in the absence of immediate (acute) effects, it might take 40
years for a potential carcinogen to act in enough people for it to be
detected as a cause. Moreover, research shows that glyphosate seems to
act in a similar fashion to antibiotics by altering soil biology in a yet
unknown way and causing effects like: 

- Reducing the ability of soybeans and clover to fix nitrogen.

- Rendering bean plants more vulnerable to disease.

- Reducing growth of beneficial soil-dwelling mycorrhizal fungi, which
are key for helping plants extract phosphorous from the soil.

Farm-scale evaluations in the UK showed that herbicide-resistant crop
management within and in the margins of beet and oilseed rape production
led to reductions in beetle, butterfly and bee populations. Counts of
predacious carabid beetles that feed on weed seeds were also smaller in
GM crop fields. The abundance of invertebrates that are food for mammals,
birds, and other invertebrates were also found to be generally lower in
herbicide-resistant beet and oilseed rape. [17]  The absence of flowering
weeds in GM fields can have serious consequences for beneficial insects
which require pollen and nectar for survival. 


Conclusions

Soybean expansion in Latin America represents a recent and powerful
threat to biodiversity in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia. GM
soybeans are much more environmentally damaging than other crops, partly
because of their unsustainable production requirements, and partly
because their export focus requires massive transportation infrastructure
projects, which open up vast tracts of land to other environmentally
unsound economic and extractive activities.

The production of herbicide-resistant soybean leads to environmental
problems such as deforestation, soil degradation, pesticide and genetic
contamination. Socio-economic consequences include severe concentration
of land and income, the expulsion of rural populations to the Amazonian
frontier and to urban areas, compounding the concentration of the poor in
cities. Soybean expansion also diverts government funds otherwise usable
in education, health, and alternative, far more sustainable
agroecological methods.

The multiple impacts of soybean expansion also reduce the food security
potential of target countries. Much of the land previously devoted to
grain, dairy products or fruits has been converted to soybean for
exports. As long as these countries continue to embrace neoliberal models
of development and respond to demand from the globalised economy, the
rapid proliferation of soybean will increase, and so will the associated
ecological and social impacts.



1 Clive James (2005), Global review of commercialised transgenic crops:
2005. International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech
Application Briefs, No 23-2002. Ithaca , New York.

2 Ibid.

3 PM Fearnside (2001), "Soybean cultivation as a threat to the
environment in Brazil", Environmental Conservation 28: 23-28.

4 Charles Benbrook (2005), Rust, resistance, run down soils, and rising
costs - problems facing soybean producers in Argentina. Ag BioTech
InfoNet, Technical Paper No. 8.

5 C Jason (2004),  World agriculture and the Environment. Island Press.
Washington.

6 PF Donald (2004), "Biodiversity impacts of some agricultural commodity
production systems," Conser-vation Biology 18:17-37.

7 Walter Pengue (2005), "Transgenic crops in Argentina: the ecological
and social debt," Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society  25: 314-322.

8 JF Jordan (2001), "Genetic engineering, the farm crisis and world
hunger," BioScience 52: 523-529.

9 Walter Pengue (2005), "Transgenic crops in Argentina: the ecological
and social debt," Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society  25: 314-322.

10 Symbiotic associations between fungi and plant roots.

11 Miguel Altieri (2004), Genetic engineering in agriculture: the myths,
environmental risks and alternatives, Food First Books, Oakland.

12 Clive James (2004), Global review of commercialised transgenic crops:
2004. International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech
Application Briefs, No 23-2002. Ithaca , New York.

13 Jane Rissler and Margaret Mellon (1996), The ecological risks of
engineered crops, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

14 Miguel Altieri (2004), Genetic engineering in agriculture: the myths,
environmental risks and alternatives, Food First Books, Oakland.

15 Walter Pengue (2005), "Transgenic crops in Argentina: the ecological
and social debt," Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society  25: 314-322.

16 http://bogota.usembassy.gov/wwwsglyp.shtml

17 www.defra.gov.uk/environment/gm/fse/index.htm


Miguel Altieri is professor of agroecology at the University of
California in Berkeley. His latest book in the agroecology theme, Genetic
Engineering in Agriculture: The myths, environmental risks, and
alternatives, was published by Food First in 2004. He can be contacted at
agroeco3@nature.berkeley.edu.

Walter Pengue is Professor of Agriculture and Ecology at the University
of Buenos Aires in Argentina. He has written extensively on Latim
America's soybean invasion. He can be contacted at wapengue@sinectis.com.ar.


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