2-Plants: Poisonous harvest cut by GM cotton in Australia
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-------------------------------- GENET-news -------------------------------
TITLE: Poisonous harvest cut by GM crop
SOURCE: Sydney Morning Herald, Australia, by Daniel Lewis
DATE: 2 Apr 2005
------------------- archive: http://www.genet-info.org/ -------------------
Poisonous harvest cut by GM crop
Farmers have begun harvesting a vast crop of genetically modified cotton
that has allowed them to slash the heavy use of pesticides for which they
have long been been criticised.
With NSW and Queensland farmers free for the first time last spring to
plant as much GM cotton as they liked after nine years of caution, about
80 per cent of the 300,000 hectares sown was genetically modified to
resist herbicides and fight the crop's enemy, the helicoverpa moth.
While cotton growers such as Bourke's Ian Cole would normally spray his
crop up to 18 times each growing season to kill off pest insects, this
season he only sprayed three times after choosing to grow a GM crop.
Those three sprays were targeted to attack sucking insects such as mites
and did not wipe out the "beneficials" - spiders, wasps and ladybirds -
as the powerful, broad-spectrum sprays for helicoverpa used to.
"I'm a big believer in technology being able to solve problems for us in
agriculture," Mr Cole said. "Technology has solved a huge problem for us
in cotton." AdvertisementAdvertisement
Over the years, traditional pesticides had became stronger and were
applied more frequently as insects built immunity.
Helicoverpa moths lay their eggs into the boll, or fruit, of the cotton
plants and when the larvae hatch they eat the fruit.
GM pioneer Monsanto first won permission for Australian farmers to grow
its Ingard GM cotton in 1996.
Ingard contained a gene found in soil bacteria that enabled the cotton to
produce a protein that killed the grubs when they ate the plant.
But because there was a risk of the helicoverpa developing immunity to
the single-gene product, planting of Ingard was limited to 30 per cent.
Now Monsanto has replaced Ingard with Bollgard II, which uses two genes
and produces two deadly proteins. The chance of insects developing
immunity to Bollgard is "extremely small", according to Mark Buckingham,
a Monsanto spokesman.
Ingard enabled farmers to more than halve the amount of pesticide
spraying they needed to do and Bollgard requires 85 per cent less
pesticide than conventional cotton.
As an ongoing safeguard, farmers planting Bollgard must also plant a
"refuge crop" of pigeon pea.
The theory is that any moths that do develop an immunity to Bollgard
would mate with moths that have fed on the nearby pigeon pea and have not
developed immunity. Their offspring would also not have immunity.
Apart from carnations, cotton is still the only GM crop allowed to be
commercially grown in Australia because of strict government regulations
and strident opposition from environmental and consumer groups.
Mr Cole said that as well as being great for the environment and the
workplace safety of his staff, Bollgard saved farmers a lot of money
because they do not have to spray as much and can devote more time to
other matters such as improving water efficiency. Cotton's thirst for
water is the industry's other public relations problem.
Globally, the area planted with GM crops rose 20 per cent last year to 81
million hectares - 5 per cent of the Earth's cultivated crop land. More
than 8 million farmers in 17 countries planted GM crops in 2004 and 90
per cent were in developing countries. When commercial GM crops were
first planted in 1996, there were 1.7 million hectares.
European NGO Network on Genetic Engineering
Hartmut MEYER (Mr)
In den Steinäckern 13
D - 38116 Braunschweig
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