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4-Patents: RAFI on Terminator II techniques

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Rural Advancement Foundation International (RAFI)
News Release 29 March 1999

** TRAITOR TECHNOLOGY: "Damaged Goods" from the Gene Giants **

New report from RAFI details over 2 dozen "Terminator II"
patents that link suicide seeds to proprietary chemicals,
genetically-weakened plants, and the patented power to
make genetically-inviable plants rise from the dead.

Beyond the prognostications of even its most pessimistic critics, 
Terminator science is snowballing into the corporate profit centre of the 
next decade and beyond. And, if the major seed and agrochemical 
multinationals have their way, Terminator and Traitor (negative trait) 
technologies will come on the heels of the new millennium to a farm near 
you. RAFI's Executive Director Pat Mooney declares, "With this report and 
our previous work on the Terminator, RAFI is sounding the alarm that 
without government action, these technologies will be commercialized 
within a few years with potentially disastrous consequences."

Says RAFI Programme Officer Edward Hammond, "Since we discovered the 
original Terminator patent a year ago, even at our most pessimistic we 
never forecast negative trait genetic engineering to explode as quickly 
as it has." Most observers thought there would be a delay of two or three 
years before second and third generation Terminator refinements were 
patented; but instead says Hammond, "a survey of patent offices reveals 
that the cat is completely out of the bag. In fact, the original 
Terminator may be a dead letter because enhanced Terminator seeds are 
already in the laboratory."

RAFI reports that every Gene Giant multinational has patented, or admits 
it is working on genetically-sterilized or chemically-dependent seeds. 
RAFI's report provides details and analysis on over two dozen such 
patents recently obtained by 12 institutions. The patents seek to exploit 
- or could exploit - new genetic engineering techniques that use 
inducible promoters to disable critical plant functions governing 
reproduction, disease resistance, and seed viability.

If commercialization of such seeds proceeds, farmers worldwide will be 
tangled in an expensive web of chemicals, intellectual property, and 
disabled germplasm that leads to bioserfdom. The technology spells 
disaster for farmers and global food security because over three quarters 
of the world's farmers - mainly poor farmers - depend on farm saved seed. 
The complete removal of farmers from the age-old process of plant 
breeding through sterilized seed could also signify a disastrous 
narrowing of the genepool on which everyone depends for food security.

SCARY SCOPE: According to RAFI's Research Director Hope Shand, "The 
patents describe the use of external chemicals to turn on and off genetic 
traits in plants and go well beyond DeltaPine's original 'Terminator' 
patent. They are techniques to control a wide variety of 'input' and 
'output' (production and processing) traits by spraying with proprietary 
herbicides or fertilizers. Others take us beyond crop plants to the use 
of Terminator-style tactics on insects and even possibly mammals."

to switch the plant's germination on or off. AstraZeneca's Verminator 
patents use what it calls 'killer genes' for this purpose. Yet 
AstraZeneca has been telling governments, scientists, and the press that 
despite their continuing pursuit of its patents around the world, they 
won't stop farmers from saving seed. RAFI's Pat Mooney says, "Something 
didn't add up, so we set out to investigate."

Newly discovered patent claims explain the confusing AstraZeneca 
position. The new patents refine AstraZeneca's "Verminator" technology 
that links plant growth and germination to repeated application of 
proprietary chemicals. Without specific patented chemicals, the plant 
doesn't grow. "Essentially," says RAFI's Edward Hammond, "they're talking 
about the manufacture of junkie plants that are physically dependent on a 
patented chemical cocktail." AstraZeneca says it will patent the 
technology in 77 countries.

See AstraZeneca's Verminator II patent:
wer.h ts&SearchType=4&VdkVgwKey=9735983

Says RAFI's Mooney, "So, you see AstraZeneca and the other Gene Giants 
don't want farmers to buy new seed every year so much as to force them to 
repurchase their old seed." Monsanto is already pioneering such 'pay by 
the generation' techniques through legal means - the infamous grower 
agreements - in the US and Canada; but research is steering toward 
biological means of achieving the same sad end. Mooney says "It will be 
vastly more profitable for multinationals to sell seeds programmed to 
commit suicide at harvest so that farmers must pay the company to obtain 
the chemicals to have them re-activated for the next planting - either 
through a seed conditioning process or through the purchase of a 
specialized chemicals that bring saved seed back to life, Lazarus-style."

"In effect, this shifts all the seed costs to farmers, and the companies 
won't have to multiply, ship, and warehouse massive seed stocks," Hammond 
adds, "As the seed oligopoly strengthens, companies will have less and 
less incentive to invest in plant breeding research, after all they'll 
already have the farmers in a position of utter dependency." Pat Mooney 
agrees, "With these 'Lazarus-link seeds' the advertising investment will 
continue but the research investment will wither away."

GENETIC MUTILATION: An especially disturbing feature of some of the new 
patents profiled in RAFI's report is the deliberate disabling of natural 
plant functions that help to fight disease. Swiss biotech giant Novartis 
is most advanced in this aspect of Traitor technology. Novartis blandly 
refers to it as "inactivation of endogenous regulation" so that "genes 
which are natively regulated can be regulated exclusively by the 
application to the plant of a chemical regulator."

Among the genes which Novartis can control in this manner are patented 
SAR (systemic acquired resistance) genes which are critical to plant's 
ability to fight off infections from many viruses and bacteria. Thus, 
Novartis has patented techniques to create plants with natural healthy 
functions turned off. "The only way to turn them back on and fix these 
'damaged goods' " says RAFI's Edward Hammond, "is, well, you guessed it, 
the application of a propietary chemical."

See the Novartis antisense regulation of SAR systems patent:
5,650 ,505

TIGHT-LIPPED MONSANTO: Caught like a deer in the headlights during recent 
battles over genetically-modified plants - especially in Europe - 
Monsanto has sought to deflect questions and criticism about Terminator 
technology by saying that the Terminator belongs to its soon-to-be 
subsidiary Delta and Pine Land Company. As such, the oft-repeated PR 
position goes, Monsanto doesn't yet have access to the Terminator and 
can't inform concerned governments and people about plans for Terminator 

"It's been their mantra across the world." says RAFI's Mooney, "We've 
heard the same confusing statements from Monsanto representatives in New 
Zealand, India, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Brazil, the EU, and the US." Even last 
week, at a Harvard University presentation, Monsanto's representative 
similarly shrugged off the question. "In fact," says RAFI's Mooney, "it's 
a deliberate ploy - or, at best, incomplete information - that obfuscates 
facts about the company's own research agenda. Monsanto already has its 
own in-house, patented Terminator technology, which it says it will 
patent in a whopping 89 countries. Obviously, the company is not being 
forthright. If Monsanto doesn't start coming clean, it risks further 
damage to its already tarnished image."

See Monsanto's Terminator II patent:
wer.h ts&SearchType=4&VdkVgwKey=9744465

WILL TERMINATOR WORK? RAFI notes that some plant scientists are skeptical 
that Traitor Technology will work successfully in the field. Monsanto, 
one of the original Traitor Tech proponents, is encouraging this view. 
There is no doubt that Traitor Tech will be continually refined as it 
moves toward the market; but terminator plants are already in the 
greenhouse and profit estimates are being calculated. "It's only a matter 
of time. Every major pesticide-producing Gene Giant is hard at work 
perfecting the technology." Shand adds, "Companies don't patent for the 
fun of the paperwork and paying lawyer's fees. Those who think 
corporations will drop the Terminator - or think it won't make it to 
market - are living in Fantasyland. There's too much money to be made. 
Unless it is banned by governments, Terminator is going to happen, and 
probably sooner rather than later."

WILL FARMERS BUY IT? Delta & Pine Land and Monsanto insist that no one 
will force farmers to buy Terminator seed. The real question is, will 
farmers have a choice? The commercial seed industry is imploding, and a 
handful of Gene Giants already control a rapidly expanding share of major 
seed markets. After DuPont announced earlier this month that it would buy 
Pioneer Hi-Bred, the world's largest seed company, the Wall Street 
Journal concluded that the deal "effectively divides" most of the US seed 
industry between DuPont and Monsanto. With the disappearance of public 
sector plant breeders, farmers are becoming increasingly vulnerable and 
have fewer choices in the marketplace.

TERMINATING THE TERMINATOR: RAFI and its partners around the world are 
contacting governments asking them to declare all of the Terminator-style 
patent claims as contrary to ordre public. In January, Global Response (a 
US based non-profit organization) encouraged its 4,000 members in forty 
countries to write to the Director-General of FAO asking him to oppose 
the Terminator as a matter of world food security. FAO has replied that 
governments may take up the issue in Rome April 19 to 23 during the 
meeting of the FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and 
Agriculture. RAFI will be at that meeting and will make a presentation to 
governments. Further, concerned individuals from 71 countries have sent 
almost 7,000 letters to US Agriculture Secretary Glickman asking him to 
ban the Terminator.

Although global opposition is mounting, RAFI worries that the UN's 
Biodiversity Convention may go "soft" on the environmental and social 
implications of the technology. When the Convention meets in Montreal in 
June, it is to receive a scientific study on Terminator. "We will read 
and respond to that study very quickly," Pat Mooney advises.


For further information:


Pat Roy Mooney, Executive Director, RAFI
110 Osborne Street South, Suite 202
Winnipeg, MB, R3L 1Y5  CANADA
Tel: 	+1 204 453-5259
Fax: 	+1 204 925-8134

Hope Shand, Research Director, RAFI
Tel: 	+1 717 337-6482
Fax: 	+1 717 337-6499

Edward Hammond, Programme Officer, RAFI
Tel: 	+1 206 323-7378
Fax: 	+1 206 323-6052


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